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THE FORCES OF MATTER ARE MEMORIES OF SYMMETRY John A. Gowan

June, 2016

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The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. All forces act spontaneously to return matter to its original symmetric energy state, light.

This article has been translated into Macedonian by Katerina Nestiv. Many thanks, Katerina! See: http://sciencevobe.com/2016/06/09/the-forces-of-matter-are-memories-of-symmetry/

This article has been translated into Czech by Barbora Lebedova. Many thanks Barbora! See: http://www.bildelarexpert.se/blogg/2016/07/31/vyuka-psani-na-stroji.

Gravity – gravity is matter’s memory that it once was light. Gravity has a memory (“location” charge) of the symmetric dispersion of light’s energy throughout spacetime, everywhere, simultaneously (light is a- temporal, non-local). Gravity acts to return asymmetric (temporal, local) bound energy to symmetric free energy, as in the conversion of mass to light in our sun and related astrophysical processes, including Hawking’s “quantum radiance” of “black holes”. Gravity is a form of negative entropy and energy, balancing the positive energy of the universe, and creating, via the conversion of space into time, an alternative entropic drive and domain (time, history) for bound electromagnet energy forms (which unlike light, cannot move at velocity c, but nevertheless require, for multiple conservation reasons (energy, causality), an entropy drive and domain of their own. Thus history is the entropic domain of matter, the analog of the spatial entropic domain of light; gravity mediates between the two, converting either into the other. The three intrinsic dimensional motions of physics (“velocity c”, time, gravity) are connected in an entropic triangle.

Electric Charge – is matter’s memory of its original symmetric state as a balanced set of matter/antimatter particles oscillating with its alternative form, light. Particle/antiparticle annihilations confirm this origin. The attraction between positive and negative electric charges is nature’s most basic expression of matter’s drive to return to the symmetric energy state of its creation (via matter-antimatter annihilation). Our universe is grossly asymmetric in that it consists almost wholly of matter, lacking any substantial amount of antimatter, at least in the form of baryons. This asymmetry, the basic feature of our Cosmos, requires (in compensation) time, gravitation, and all the other charges and forces of nature. It is also the source of two basic drives in our universe: 1) the “four forces of physics” act to return bound energy (matter) to free energy (light); 2) these same forces act to maintain, through time, the absolute value and integrity of their several charges, despite relative motion and the enervation of entropy, because symmetry debts must be paid in full (not in inflated or otherwise devalued currency), in complete satisfaction of Noether’s symmetry-conservation theorem. (In the case of the dimensional forces, these considerations extend to the values of the constant “velocity c” and Einstein’s invariant “Interval”, serving both energy conservation and causality, resulting in the dimensional warpage seen in both Special and General Relativity. In the case of the invariant electric charge, the analogous protective mechanism is magnetic; in the strong force it is permanent confinement of the quark’s

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partial charges; in the weak force, it is the huge mass of the field vectors (IVBs), which ensure that all elementary particles (within type) are identical.)

Strong Force – a baryon’s memory that it once was a single, whole particle, a primeval lepton or leptoquark, the heaviest member of the leptonic spectrum. The “color charge” of the strong force (carried by “gluons”) acts to keep the 3 quarks of the baryon confined permanently to an effectively single particle bearing a whole quantum unit of leptonic electric charge. As the quarks attempt to separate, threatening this apparent unity, the confining force grows stronger; as the quarks crowd together, moving toward the original charge unity, the confining force grows weaker (“asymptotic freedom”). A baryon is derived from a primitive lepton (leptoquark) fractured into three parts (the quarks) during the “Big Bang” – thus forming the necessary connection between the leptons and baryons. The symmetry issue in the strong force color charge is between the partial charges of the quarks vs the whole quantum unit charges of the leptons. Quark partial charges cannot be annihilated, or even balanced, by any free particle outside the confines of the baryon (no suitable particle exists). Hence the strong (color) force is a symmetry debt enclosed within another symmetry debt – the massive energy state of the baryon.

Weak Force – the massive IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) of the weak force remember the original electroweak unified force energy state in which elementary leptons and quarks were all energetically equivalent. The IVBs recreate this primitive symmetric energy state (via their large mass-energy) to produce decays (such as the beta decay of neutrons) in which single elementary particles are created which are exactly the same as every other elementary particle of their type ever produced – past, present, or future. The weak force charge is “identity” charge, carried in implicit or hidden form by all massive leptons (including leptoquarks and their derived baryons), and carried in explicit form by neutrinos. Neutrinos are “bare” identity charges. Neutrinos are necessary to balance the hidden identity charges of their massive leptonic namesakes. The weak force symmetry is the global (universal) uniformity among all elementary particles (within type), enforced locally by the massive IVBs. The great weak force asymmetry is the creation of our “matter-only” universe during the “Big Bang” (probably by the asymmetric weak force decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks). (Leptoquark antineutrinos (which balance proton”number” charge) are “dark matter” candidates.)

As with matter, so with us: We have an instinctual memory of our spiritual nature and unity with the Cosmos – expressed worldwide through religion and all forms of art, and in science through the concept of Information (of which “charge” is the most significant form, being strictly conserved). Humans carry information in our atoms, our genes, our brains, and our words, books, libraries, and schools. The most basic physical purpose of information (in its conserved form of charge) is to provide a symmetry-conserving pathway for matter back to light. Life is the rationale for the Cosmos, and consciousness is the rationale for life. We are the universe become aware, awakened to itself.

“….not in entire forgetfulness….

but trailing clouds of glory do we come

from God, who is our home….”

Wordsworth: “Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood” 1802-04

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Symmety in the “Tetrahedron Mode”l VS the “Standard Model” file:///Documents/TheoryOfEverything/symdebt.html

Symmetry Debts: the “Tetrahedron Model” VS the “Standard Model”

John A. Gowan (Revised Dec., 2013) Home Page

Both the “Standard” and the “Tetrahedron Model” rely on symmetry principles to create unified theories of the “four forces of physics” (in the sense of Emmy Noether’s great theorem relating symmetry and conservation). But in general I use the symmetries of the “forest”, while the standard model uses the symmetries of the “trees”. Obviously, these cannot be mutually exclusive categories; in most respects the two theories complement each other. Another major difference is that I use the concept of symmetry “debts” to solve qualitative “why” or conservation problems (Why gravity? What is the conservation reason that gravity must exist as a force in the universe?), whereas the “establishment” uses the concept of symmetry-in-action to solve quantitative “how” or mechanistic problems (how does gravity produce its effects and how can we calculate them?). (See: “The ‘Tetrahedron Model’ VS the ‘Standard Model’ of Physics: A Comparison”.)

The Electromagnetic Force

Our universe is an electromagnetic universe, composed of bound and free forms of electromagnetic energy (matter and light), which are inter-convertible, as demonstrated by the creation and annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs in our accelerators and colliders, as well as numerous astrophysical processes. This relationships is also theoretically illuminated by such celebrated formulas as E=mcc (Einstein), E=hv (Planck-Einstein), and hv=mcc (de Broglie-Planck-Einstein). Therefore, principles of symmetry in the electromagnetic force (in both its bound and free forms) are of primary significance for any theory of force unification.

The most fundamental of these electromagnetic phenomena is the symmetry gauge “velocity c”, the velocity of light, the universal electromagnetic constant. Einstein showed that “velocity c” characterizes a symmetric state of free energy. The photon, or quantum of light (the boson, field vector, or force-carrier of the electromagnetic field), traveling freely in vacuum at “velocity c”, is the most symmetric state of energy known, carrying no charges, having no mass, producing no gravitational field, having no time dimension, and having no spatial dimension in the direction of motion. In short, the photon has forever to go nowhere, “traveling” with an effectively infinite velocity. This is the origin of the photon’s “non-local” energy state, a state of pure spatio-temporal symmetry. The loss of this symmetric non-local energy state (when free electromagnetic energy – light – is converted into massive, local, immobile forms of bound electromagnetic energy – matter) is the root cause of the gravitational “location” charge, and indeed all the other charges of matter.

The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light (per Noether’s theorem). To see this directly, imagine an electron-positron pair. Now (by some miracle of the weak force) take the positron away and look at the remaining electron. The energy of the electron is conserved by its mass, but what is the electric charge for? It was supposed to produce an annihilation reaction with the positron, returning the particle pair to the symmetry of light, but now the charge is “hung”, preserved indefinitely by the symmetry principle of charge conservation. This charge, isolated from its antimatter complement, is what I refer to as a symmetry debt. Charges produce forces which demand repayment of the symmetry debt they represent. And just in case the electric charge should fail to produce the expected

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annihilation, there is a “plan B”: the gravitational charge of the electron’s mass. This “fail safe” charge will eventually return the electron’s mass to light, if only via the “Hawking Radiation” of a black hole. It’s all very simple, and it applies directly to our asymmetric universe because antimatter went missing after the “Big Bang”.

The evolution of the universe is the story of the safeguarding and conservation of matter’s energy and symmetry debts (conserving the quality as well as the quantity of matter’s energy content), and the ongoing conversion of asymmetric bound electromagnetic energy back to its original symmetric form of light (free electromagnetic energy) – as in our Sun, the stars, supernovas, quasars, black holes, and many other astrophysical processes. This is the “big picture” of the symmetry of the “forest” (the Cosmos), over and above the symmetry of the “trees” (the atoms), and it provides a road map to a theory of force unification. With this overview we don’t get lost working our way through an unconnected maze of atomic details. Naturally, we need the atomic detail (the puzzle pieces), but we also need a clear prospect of our goal, or we cannot fit the pieces together.

After “velocity c” and the photon, the second most important electromagnetic symmetry condition, phenomenon, or symmetry debt to consider is the electric charge itself (of which the photon is the “field vector” or force carrier). Electric charge is a major expression of the symmetry debt of matter, so what is it telling us? It is (in terms of the “forest”) telling us that the entire realm of antimatter is missing from our universe (“someone has stolen our tent”) – that is, if antimatter were present, charge symmetry would be restored and the universe of matter and antimatter would dissolve (explosively) into a universe of perfect symmetry and light. Another way of looking at this is to recognize that electric charge is telling us the entire realm of matter is asymmetric, because it comes with mass, time, gravity, and charge. Electric charge is a protest against these asymmetric conditions, and is trying to avoid them by producing annihilation reactions. The electric charge continues to search for antimatter, and it will be conserved until it finds antimatter and cancels the electromagnetic debt of matter – regardless of how long it takes. This search for symmetry, combined with energy conservation and entropy (the intrinsic motions of light, time, and gravity), are the fundamental motivating forces of the universe. Our Cosmos exists because the conservation of symmetry debts through time – via the principle of charge conservation – allows it to exist.

There are many other symmetries of the electromagnetic force and of electromagnetic bound energy that have been known and studied since the time of Maxwell, beginning of course, with the symmetry between electric and magnetic fields. There is the global and local “gauge” symmetry of voltage, phase, and the exchange of photons (field vectors) between charged particles, the invariance of Maxwell’s equations, the invariance of velocity c, the invariance and conservation of electric charge, and other effects due to symmetry at the atomic level of the “trees” which I need not go into because the “establishment” has already explored it so thoroughly. I’m more interested in the “forest” symmetries the “establishment” has either ignored or simply not emphasized, apparently because they tend to be of a more philosophical, rather than practical, nature (you can’t make money or bombs with them). (For a technical insight into the connections between the symmetry phenomena of electromagnetism and spacetime, see the classic text by: Robert Resnick Introduction to Special Relativity (Chapt. IV) John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1968.)

Gravity

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Another major symmetry debt of matter is expressed through the gravitational “location” charge. The “location” charge of gravity derives from the lost “non-local” symmetric energy state of light when free electromagnetic energy is converted to bound electromagnetic energy (in any form). Bound energy (atoms, matter) is massive, immobile, and local, carrying various charges (symmetry debts) including the gravitational symmetry debt. Bound energy is 4-dimensional, including the asymmetric time dimension, whereas free energy (light) is 2-dimensional – lacking both a time dimension and one spatial dimension in the direction of motion. The asymmetric time dimension fixes the location of bound energy in 3-D space (because time is one-way, every point in spacetime is unique), and time itself is the active principle of gravity’s “location” charge. A gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time. (See: “Introduction to Gravity”.)

Time moves into history at right angles to all three spatial dimensions, pulling space along with it. But 3-D space cannot enter the point-like beginning of the one-D time line of history, and so the spatial dimensions self-annihilate at the center of every mass, leaving behind a temporal residue, the metric equivalent of the annihilated space. The intrinsic (entropic) one-way motion of this temporal residue into history continues this self-feeding process forever, or until bound energy is completely converted to free energy (light) – which has no time dimension nor the gravitational field to produce one. (See: “Does Light Produce a Gravitational Field?”.) Time and history are an alternative entropic drive and domain to space, replacing the intrinsic (entropic) motion of the photon – to accommodate the unique entropic requirements of bound energy (which is causal, whereas light is acausal). (See: “Spatial vs Temporal Entropy”.)

Gravity will eventually completely convert bound to free energy (via the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, supernovas, quasars, and finally and completely, via “Hawking Radiation” of black holes), returning the Cosmos to its original state of symmetric free energy (light). (Note that gravity always tells us exactly where the center of mass of any form of bound energy is located, and exactly how much is present. It will also tell us the average density if we know the size of the gravitating object.)

There are two important (and astonishing) things to recognize about the time dimension with respect to its gravitational role as the “location” dimension, the dimension which specifies the spatial location of bound energy: 1) time is one-way, hence always new, never repeating (because of its role in causality); 2) the universe begins with a “Big Bang” at time zero everywhere in space, simultaneously. Hence a 4-dimensional point (“event”) in spacetime can be absolutely unique.

Using a financial metaphor, we can think of gravity in its low energy stages (for example, here on planet Earth) as simply paying the “interest” on the symmetry debt of mass. That is, gravity works away continuously but no change in the Earth’s mass or its gravitational force ever occurs. However, at higher energy levels, as on our Sun, gravity begins to “pay down” the “principle” on the symmetry debt of mass – mass is actually converted to light and the gravitational field of the Sun is reduced in consequence. This process goes to completion (eventually but inexorably) via the “Hawking Radiation” of black holes.

The electromagnetic and gravitational symmetry debts are related in that both are long-range force debts that are indifferent to the specific nature of the matter involved. Furthermore, “in the beginning”, the negative energy of gravity exactly balanced the positive energy of electromagnetic energy,

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allowing the universe to be born as a quantum fluctuation of the “multiverse”, containing zero net energy and zero net charge (due to the compensating presence of antimatter). The ongoing conversion (in stars, etc.) of bound to free energy continues to reduce the total gravitation energy of the universe (since light, having no “location”, produces no gravitation field), resulting in the apparent “acceleration” of cosmic expansion (as recently observed).

The remaining charges of matter (strong and weak) are short-range force debts which play the major role of converting free to bound energy in the early universe – and continuing today in such phenomena as heavy element building in stars and the radioactive decay of heavy atomic nuclei. These are symmetry debts of the “trees” rather than the “forest”, and here my ideas more closely follow “establishment” lines. I turn to them next.

The Strong and Weak Nuclear Forces

While the long-range electromagnetic and gravitational forces are primarily forces concerned with establishing, maintaining, and conserving the spatio-temporal metric of the Cosmos, the strong and weak nuclear forces are primarily concerned with breaking the primordial symmetry of light and its particle-antiparticle pairs, and creating a matter-only Cosmos of bound electromagnetic energy. (See: “The Origin of Matter and Information”.) Atomic nuclei contain almost all of the visible, baryonic, bound electromagnetic energy in the Cosmos, and atomic nuclei are held together by the strong force. The obvious questions are: 1) how does the free energy of light become bound into the mass of an atomic nucleus; and 2) what are the conservation consequence of the conversion of free to bound energy?

We can only speculate about the first question, as this conversion takes place at the unthinkable (and unreproducible) energies of the early micro-moments of the “Big Bang”. Briefly, my presumption is that all four forces participate in the creation of a primordial “leptoquark” – a heavy lepton (charged particle similar to a very heavy electron) which splits into three parts (the nascent quarks) under its own excessive mass and size. The weak force rearranges these quarks into electrically neutral threesomes (similar to a heavy neutron), which then decays asymmetrically to produce a matter-only Universe. The electrical neutrality of the primordial leptoquarks is essential to allow the weak force enough time to produce an asymmetric decay – otherwise everything simply vanishes into photons via matter-antimatter electrical annihilation reactions (returning to the unbroken symmetry of light and matter-antimatter particle pairs). Hence the necessity for a primordial particle composed of quark sub-units that can begin as a charged leptoquark-anti-leptoquark pair, but undergo an internal rearrangement of its subunits to become an electrically neutral leptoquark subject to an asymmetric weak force decay. We insist on the leptoquark designation (which amounts to an internally fractured heavy lepton) to establish the link between leptons and baryons (baryons are derived from primordial, internally fractured heavy leptons). During the primordial asymmetric weak force decay, a leptoquark anti-neutrino is emitted, balancing the “hidden” number charge of the surviving baryon; this heavy anti-neutrino is a prime candidate for the mysterious “dark matter” of the Cosmos. (See: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”.)

The Strong Force

The strong force arises completely naturally to hold the three fractured parts of the leptoquark together. (See: “The Strong Force: Two Expressions”.) This fractional elementary charge of the quarks has also been seen in the “fractional quantum Hall effect”, for which the 1998 Nobel Prize was

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awarded (See: Robert B. Laughlin A Different Universe Basic Books 2005). The strong force also naturally grows stronger as the quarks try to separate, since a free fractionally charged particle would threaten the quantum rules of symmetry conservation – only whole quantum unit charges are allowed. Fractional charges are allowed only if they remain permanently confined within whole quantum-unit charged entities – that is, as “virtual” fractional charges inside baryons. By the same token, the strong force grows weaker as the quarks move closer together, since the threat to symmetry conservation posed by their fractional charges is thereby reduced. This is the celebrated effect of “asymptotic freedom” – also awarded a Nobel Prize (Gross, Politzer, Wilczek, 2004 – see: Science 15 Oct. 2004 page 400). The strong force is perfectly understandable from the point of view of symmetry conservation, and the gluon field is a perfectly composed invariant “gauge” field of local symmetry. Just as the quarks appear to be the massive fractured parts of an elementary lepton, so the gluons seem to be fractional parts of photons – fractured field vectors of the lepton’s fractured electric charge (reminiscent of the fractional quantum Hall effect). The actual mass of the nucleus is not contained in the quarks themselves, but rather in the huge energy of the gluon field which binds them together. (For a discussion of gravitational VS inertial mass, see: “The Higgs Boson VS the Spacetime Metric”. Further discussions of the role of the Higgs boson as a gauge of particle mass may be found in: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”; see also “Table of the Higgs Cascade”.)

Conservation Consequences of the Conversion of Free Electromagnetic Energy (light) to Bound Electromagnetic Energy (matter)

Light is the most symmetric form of electromagnetic energy, and when it is converted to any form of bound electromagnetic energy, the loss of light’s non-local symmetric energy state must have consequences – according to Noether’s Theorem. The “quality” of light’s energy content is conserved no less than its quantity. Light’s energy is conserved in bound form as mass (hv=mcc), while light’s symmetry is conserved in the form of charge. The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light. Electric charge and gravity are the two most general forms of these symmetry debts. Both are long-range forces and both have a single ultimate purpose and conservation role – to return bound energy to its original symmetric form. The electric charge does this through matter-antimatter annihilation, the gravitational charge does this through astrophysical processes such as stars, supernovas, quasars, and finally and completely, through Hawking’s “quantum radiance” of black holes. (See: “Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory”; see: “A Description of Gravity”.) Gravity and the electromagnetic force are related through time, velocity c, and the spacetime metric. Time is the asymmetric dimension which electric charge is trying to avoid in its annihilation reactions (light has no time dimension but matter does), but once matter is formed, time itself becomes the active or motivating principle of the gravitational “location” charge. Time and gravity modify the spatial metric established by light, and in the extreme case of the black hole, the spatial electromagnetic metric is completely converted to a gravitational temporal metric, in which matter moves at velocity c while light stands still (g = c). Time and gravity create history, which functions as an alternative entropy domain for matter’s causal information field, replacing the acausal spatial entropy domain of light. (See: “Spatial VS Temporal Entropy”.) The intrinsic motion of light is the spatial entropy drive of free energy, the intrinsic motion of time is the historical entropy drive of bound energy. The intrinsic motion of gravity connects these two entropy drives by converting space into time (as on planet Earth) or vice versa (as in the stars).

Weak Force

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Whereas the strong force holds atomic nuclei together, the weak force tears them apart. Acting together, the strong and weak forces create matter both De Novo in the “Big Bang”, and produce all the heavy elements of the periodic table – in stars and supernovas, as well as during the later stages of the “Big Bang “. The weak force produces the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks during the early moments of the “Big Bang”, creating matter-only baryons (heavy particles containing 3 quarks) that fuse together to produce all the atomic elements of our cosmos. The weak force is the only force that can produce asymmetric decays, and it is likewise the only force that can produce and/or transform the identity of a single elementary particle – other forces produce only particle- antiparticle pairs (excepting only gravity in the extreme case of “Hawking Radiation” in black holes). It is precisely the capability of the weak force to produce elementary particle “singlets” that requires the bizarre form/mechanism of this force, with its massive “IVBs” ( “Intermediate Vector Bosons”).

It is a universal fact (a “global” symmetry) that every electron is absolutely identical to every other electron in the Cosmos – and must be, if energy, charge, and symmetry are to be conserved. And it’s not only electrons: every elementary particle must be absolutely identical to every other (of its type) no matter when or where it was, is, or will be created. It is the task of the weak force (and only the weak force) to produce these particles as “singlets”, that is, as individual particles, not as particle- antiparticle pairs. The method used by the weak force involves the very massive IVBs, which recreate the original primordial conditions of energy-density in which these particles were first produced. Every weak force transformation involving an IVB is therefore a mini “Big Bang”, a recreation of the birth trauma of the Cosmos but reduced to the scale of an individual elementary particle. (See: “The ‘W’ IVBs and the Weak Force Mechanism”; see: “Introduction to the Weak Force”.)

The weak force charge is “identity” charge, also known as lepton “number” (or “flavor”) charge. (See: “Identity Charge and the Weak Force”.) The (nearly) massless neutrinos carry this charge in its explicit form, while the massive leptons (the electron, muon, tau) carry this charge in “hidden” form (“hidden” because the identity charge involves handedness, which cannot be strictly conserved by a massive particle). The neutrino’s explicit identity charge nevertheless balances the hidden identity charge of the heavy leptons. Any newly created (single) massive lepton must be accompanied by the appropriate neutrino to balance its identity charge; hence the neutrino functions as a sort of certificate which guarantees the mass, charge, spin, etc., of the newly minted elementary particle conforms to the universal standard. Neutrinos must also be emitted when leptons are destroyed – the relationship between the massive lepton and its paired neutrino is curiously analogous to the commonly presumed relationship between the human body and soul.

Only elementary particles are paired with neutrinos; quarks have none, as they are sub-elementary particles with fractional charges. Their identity charges, like their fractional electric charges, are conserved by the composite baryons which comprise them (“baryon number” charge, which as we have seen is balanced by a leptoquark anti-neutrino). In the modern universe, the baryon neutrino can only be seen during proton decay – which (fortunately) I presume commonly occurs only inside black holes (if anything occurs there at all). The symmetry constraining the weak force is just the global symmetry of identity (within type) among all elementary particles ever created. An electron created during the “Big Bang” can be “swapped out” with an electron created today and no one can tell the difference. It should be obvious that this symmetry is completely necessary for energy and charge conservation and hence the orderly functioning of the Cosmos.

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For the role of the Higgs boson in all this, see: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”; see also “Table of the Higgs Cascade”; see also “Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers”. For a discussion of the Life Force (Information Force) and the Information Pathway see: “The Information Pathway”; “The Information Ladder”; “The Human Connection”; “The Fractal Organization of Nature”. For a discussion of cosmological issues, see: “A Spacetime Map of the Universe”.

The Maintenance of Charge Values Through Time

Closely related to symmetry conservation via absolute charge conservation (charge annihilation) is the phenomenon of charge maintenance – the safeguarding of the value, magnitude, quality and quantity of charge for an indefinite period of time until full conservation (as via antimatter annihilation) can be accomplished. The great and significant difference between energy debts and symmetry debts is that the latter, as carried by charge/spin/handedness, may be carried undamaged through an indefinite duration of time until they are paid, whereas the former must be paid immediately. Hence the mechanism of symmetry debts as carried by absolutely conserved charges through time is essential to a Cosmos such as ours that enjoys an evolutionary development through an extended historical dimension.

Think of the difference between the electron’s charge (a symmetry debt) and its mass (an energy debt). The electron’s mass is an actual alternative form of the energy of light from which the electron was made (bound electromagnetic energy VS free electromagnetic energy – mcc = hv), whereas the electron’s charge just produces a blind force seeking its anti-charge, and is not in any sense an alternative form of the symmetry debt it actually represents – the lost dimensional symmetry of light (acausal light has no asymmetric time dimension, whereas causal matter does). While the rest mass of the electron cannot vary, nevertheless because mass is an actual alternative (bound) form of electromagnetic energy, the electron’s effective mass can vary to represent or accommodate additional energy inputs to the electron, as for example energy inputs due to acceleration. The election’s charge however, cannot vary and accelerated charges produce instead magnetic fields and radiation (synchrotron radiation, Cherenkov radiation, radio and TV waves, etc.), shunting the excess energy into alternative electromagnetic forms without changing the actual magnitude of the electric charge. Such “local gauge symmetry” effects are further discussed below.

But how are these charges (symmetry debts) carried unchanged through aeons of time – from the “Big Bang” to the present? While this is a much more complex function than simple charge conservation via annihilation, it is nevertheless the specific and daily task of each of the field vectors of the four forces. Our universe is built to deal with this problem from the outset, or it could not function – it could not conserve energy. It is why we have such dualities as spacetime and electromagnetism, and why the field vectors all seem to have one foot in the universe of matter and the other in the universe of antimatter. It is likewise why the “vacuum” is full of virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, in effect a grand reservoir of charge making all kinds of particle transformations possible. The photon of electromagnetism is its own antiparticle; likewise the graviton (a quantum unit of time or negative entropy); also the IVBs and the Higgs boson of the weak force, taken together; and again as seen in the gluon field of the strong force, which is composed of color-anticolor charges in all combinations (Gell-Mann’s strong force), even including the meson field of quark-antiquark pairs (Yukawa’s strong force). These are the “gauge” fields of local symmetry, which all act to maintain invariant the

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particular symmetry they represent despite the uncertain and changing environment in our realm of warped/curved metric and relative (rather than absolute) motion, massive (rather than massless) particles, and our “real” (historical) world of 4 dimensional spacetime and causal (rather than acausal) relations among particles.

We have seen how the massive IVB field vectors of the weak force accomplish their task of safeguarding the identity charge and invariant mass of elementary particles through the recreation of the primordial environment of the “Big Bang”; other field vectors have analogous compensatory effects and actions. The exchange of the strong force gluon field permanently confines the fractionally charged quarks to whole quantum-unit charge “packages” – the baryons; the co-variance of time and space in relative motion produces magnetic effects which compensate moving electrical charges, while “warped” gravitational metrics maintain the invariance of velocity “c”, the “Interval”, and causality via similar mechanisms (“Lorentz Invariance” of Special and General Relativity).

All the field vectors operate by exchanging force carriers or bosons of their particular field, and all can be represented by simple Feynman diagrams as well as complex mathematical equations. Thus electrically charged particles exchange photons, massive particles exchange gravitons (time quanta) with spacetime, quarks exchange gluons, IVBs are exchanged between weakly interacting (decaying, transforming) particles. All these activities of the field vectors have a simple function: to maintain the magnitude, quantity, and integrity of charges and the symmetry debts they represent through time, including such fundamental gauges of charge as “velocity c”, the final arbiter of both causality and symmetry.

But these “local gauge symmetries” – the symmetries of the “trees” – have been extensively studied and formalized by the “establishment”. The reader should consult standard textbooks (or Wikipedia – Google-search “local gauge symmetry”) on these subjects for further and more detailed mathematical information regarding the action of the field vectors of the four forces with regard to “Yang-Mills” theories of “local gauge symmetry”, “renormalized” force fields, and their crucial role in the maintenance of charge and gauge magnitudes through time. This is where physics gets complicated – as perfectly invariant charges and particles derived from the ideal realm of light (as symmetry/energy debts) are thrust into an imperfect realm of relative motion, one-way time, and varying gravitational metrics, in which they must nevertheless maintain the integrity and value of their primal charges.

Links

Gravitation

Section II: Introduction to Gravitation

Why Gravity? A Rationale for Gravitation

A Description of Gravitation

The Double Conservation Role of Gravitation: Entropy vs Symmetry

Extending Einstein’s “Equivalence Principle”

The Conversion of Space to Time

“Dark Energy” and the “Accelerating Universe”: Does Light Produce a Gravitational field?

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Entropy

Section VII: Introduction to Entropy

Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics: Part I; Part II

Spatial vs Temporal Entropy

The Intrinsic Motions of Time, Space, and Gravity

Currents of Symmetry and Entropy

The Time Train

Traveling Twin Paradox: Covariance of Space and Time

The Half-life of Proton Decay and the ‘Heat Death’ of the Cosmos

The Fractal Organization of Nature

Section III: Introduction to Fractals

The Fractal Organization of Nature (table) Part 1: Microphysical Realm

Part 2: Biophysical Realm

Part 3: Astrophysical Realm

Part 4: Metaphysical Realm – Intuitive Mode

Part 5: Metaphysical Realm – Rational Mode

Part6: The Fractal Organization of Nature (summary) (text)

Newton and Darwin: The Evolution and Abundance of Life in the Cosmos Commentary on the Metaphysical Realm (rational mode)

The Human Connection

Information

Section VI: Introduction to Information Chardin: Prophet of the Information Age Negentropic Information

The Information Pathway (text)

The Formation of Matter and the Origin of Information Nature’s Fractal Pathway

The Destruction of Information

The Information Ladder (table)

Weak Force, Intermediate Vector Bosons (“IVBs”); Strong Force

Section IV: Introduction to the Weak Force

The “W” IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism (html file)

The Weak Force: Identity or Number Charge

The Weak Force “W” Particle as the Bridge Between Symmetric (2-D) and Asymmetric (4-D) Reality

The Strong and Weak Short-Range Particle Forces

Section XVIII: The Strong Force: Two Expressions

Section XVI: Introduction to the Higgs Boson (Part I)

The “Higgs” Boson and the Spacetime Metric

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The “Higgs” Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Part I

The Higgs Boson and the Evolutionary Eras of the Cosmos The Particle Table

General Systems and Metaphysics

Section VIII: Introduction to General Systems, Complex Systems

Synopsis of the “Tetrahedron Model” of the Unified Field Theory

Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the Tetrahedron Cosmic Energy Model A General Systems Analysis of the Creative Process in Nature

Section XII: Man’s Role in Nature

Section XIII: The Solar Archetype

Is There Life After Death?

The Grail and Hourglass Diagrams

Human Life-Span Development General Systems 4×3 Models

Stewart C. Dodd’s 4×4 Mathematical General System Matrix

Books by my late father Prof. John Curtis Gowan

“Trance, Art, Creativity” An Investigation of the Numinous Element and the Metaphysical Realm. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr.

“Operations of Increasing Order” Further Investigations of the Numinous Element and the Metaphysical Realm. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr.

“Development of the Psychedelic Individual”. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr. “Development of the Creative Individual”. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr.

E-Book:

Introduction to the E-Book

General Systems and a “Theory of Everything”: Essays on Physics and the Nature of Reality (html files)

Home Page

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The Symmetry Groups of Light file:///Users/johnagowan/Desktop/TheoryOfEverything/galois.html

THE SYMMETRY GROUPS OF LIGHT

(Revised April, 2013)

JOHN A. GOWAN

home page (page 1) home page (page 2) E-Book

Abstract

In the mathematical terms of Evariste Galois’ “Group Theory”, the “Tetrahedron Model” is a description of the symmetry group of light, including its destruction by asymmetric weak force decays (producing our matter-only Cosmos), and its on-going restoration in obedience to Noether’s Theorem of symmetry conservation (as in the conversion of bound to free energy in stars). (See diagram: “The Sun “Tetrahedron”.)

The usual symmetry group identified with light is that of local phase transformations, and it is designated as either SO(2) or U(1). However, I am suggesting here that light contains a very much larger (and more interesting) symmetry group associated with its transformation into particle- antiparticle pairs (and back again into light). I don’t know what the formal designation of this group might be.

For an expert’s explanation of the formal aspects of symmetry and group theory see: Keith Devlin The Language of Mathematics Chap. 5 “The Mathematics of Beauty”, 1998 W. H. Freeman & Co. (Holt Paperbacks); see also: Ian Stewart Why Beauty is Truth Chapt. 13 “The Five Dimensional Man”, Basic Books 2007. See also: Symmetry by Roy McWeeny, 2002, Dover Pub. Inc. (highly mathematical).

A “symmetry group” consists (for one example) of a collection of figures that can be transformed into one another without changing the original. The symmetry group of an equilateral triangle consists of all the triangles that can be created from an original by means of rotation, translation, reflection, etc. – provided the transformed articles are indistinguishable from the original. How do we apply this notion to the case of light? In what sense is there a symmetry group associated with transformations of light (free electromagnetic radiation)?

Beyond the simple phase transformations of the electromagnetic field, the examples of interest here are the particle-antiparticle pairs of the Dirac/Heisenberg “vacuum” of spacetime. These particle- antiparticle pairs are constantly produced from borrowed energy and instantaneously annihilate each other in an endless cycle of creation and destruction alternating between light and virtual particles, a cycle which has been ongoing throughout spacetime since its beginning in the “Big Bang”. Since these are “virtual” rather than “real” particles, we do not notice them even though they are everywhere around us. We especially notice the asymmetric forces and particles which surround (and comprise) us: gravity, time, atomic matter, charge. We only notice light because it interacts with asymmetric (charged) matter – including us.

These virtual particle-antiparticle pairs consist of all known (and unknown) species of elementary particles; their creation and annihilation cycles form (along with the aforementioned phase

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transformations) the primordial symmetry group of light or free electromagnetic energy. During the “Big Bang”, the symmetry of light and its virtual particle-pairs was broken by asymmetric high-energy weak force decays which resulted in the creation of our matter-only universe. Our Cosmos consists of one-half of light’s original symmetry group, the matter half. The antimatter half was annihilated along with most of the original matter. Hence the universe around us (including ourselves) is 1/2 of light’s original symmetry group revealed in its low-energy, matter-only form: put it together with its vanished antimatter counterpart and you will get back the original light. What we are seeing in the physical objects around us (plants, animals, planets, stars) is the long-term evolutionary consequence of the energy and information contained in the original light and its particle-antiparticle symmetry group, exposed to our view only because its original symmetry was broken (in half), unleashing powerful and inexorable forces which forever seek to restore (conserve) the original whole symmetry. Evolution is ultimately driven by matter’s eternal search for antimatter – seen most directly and commonly in the electron-proton pairing – the primordial, powerful, and eternal attraction between positive and negative electric charges. (See: “Light and Matter: A Synopsis of the Unified Field Theory”.)

The periodic table of the elements is a basic (and astounding) example of the potential for information contained in (one half of) light’s symmetry group. In some sense the elements of the periodic table are a symmetry group of light – since they do transform into one another (in stars, via the “W” IVBs and the alternative charge carriers), and when mixed with their anti-particles they return to light. But atoms and elements are themselves already compounded objects. At a deeper level we discover this information content is fractal – beyond the U, D (up, down) quarks of the proton and neutron lies another (heavier) level of C, S (charm, strange) quarks, and beyond them, a still heavier tier of T, B (top, bottom) quarks (see Fig. 3). The three quark “families” are likewise accompanied by three successively heavier levels of leptonic “families”: the electron, muon, tau and their respective neutrinos (see Fig. 1). (Leptons, neutrinos, and mesons serve as alternative charge carriers for the quarks and for each other – replacing the original antimatter charge carriers.) The symmetry group of light turns out to be complex indeed (see Fig. 4), a complexity revealed only when its symmetric form is cut in half – like exposing the seeds, cells, nuclei, and DNA of a cantaloupe when we cut in half its smooth and simple spherical surface. (See: “The Particle Table”.) (See also: “A List of the Possible Quark Combinations of the Baryons and Their Charges”; See also: “Flavor Combinations of Baryons Containing U,D or C,S Quarks”; See also: “Flavor Combinations of Baryons Containing C,S or T,B Quarks”; See also: “Flavor Combinations of Baryons Containing U,D or T,B Quarks”.)

The quark and lepton series (including the neutrinos) are obvious examples of light’s symmetry groups, and they will be emphasized here. They can be transformed into other members of their kind (via the “W” IVBs and the alternative charge carriers), and when combined with their antiparticles, restore the light from which they were originally created. But this is not all. Single particle transformations within these symmetry groups are (must be) precisely controlled by the weak force IVB (Intermediate Vector Boson) mechanism, such that every electron or other elementary particle created today is exactly the same as those created in the “Big Bang”. Going back to the equilateral triangle analogy, the triangle can rotate only through 60 degree “quantum” steps; these fixed points correspond to the fixed mass, spin, and charge of the various elementary particles. The mass hierarchy of the leptons and quarks perhaps corresponds to rotations or scale changes in our triangle analogy. The creation of single particles (rather than particle-antiparticle pairs) is especially difficult, and is the sole purview of the weak force and the reason for its elaborate and massive mechanism. The

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symmetry group remains constant throughout time, thanks to the weak force transformation mechanism. (The triangle has a “rotation” in time as well as space.) (See: The “W” IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism”; see also: “The Strong and Weak ‘Particle’ Forces”: Part 2.)

And there is more. At the high energy levels of the early “Big Bang”, the particle “species” lose their individual identities and combine in ever more inclusive categories – analogously to the biological classification hierarchy of species, genus, family, and order. These particle classes come together as the forces unite (at earlier times and at successively higher temperatures and energy levels): first the electric and weak forces combine, the “electroweak” unification bringing together all the lepton species and (separately) all the quark species into a lepton “genus” and a hadron “genus”. At the electroweak unification energy level all leptons can freely transform one into another, and likewise all quarks can freely transform among themselves – having given up their individual identities for a more inclusive “generic” identity. Hence this is a higher energy and symmetry state of force unification, another category of light’s symmetry groups (the “electroweak” symmetry group – a simpler group than the ground state, having fewer distinct members: leptons vs hadrons). Indeed, these force-unity states are also fractal, like the three quark and lepton energy levels noted above. There are three of these force-unity states as well, the second being the GUT (Grand Unified Theory) unification level of the combined electroweak and strong force, unifying all the leptons with all the quarks (the “family” group of “fermions” (including leptoquarks) – a further simplification of light’s symmetry group: fermions vs bosons). Third and finally, the TOE (Theory of Everything) unification comprising all four forces, including gravity, unites the bosons (field vectors) and fermions (particles) in a single grand electromagnetic energy “order”. (See: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”.) In this final state of ultra-high energy and symmetry (seen only at the beginning of the Cosmos in the “Creation Event”), free electromagnetic energy (light) is transformed into bound electromagnetic energy (massive particles), and vice versa, setting the stage for weak force symmetry-breaking and the emergence of the matter-only universe of light’s energy and information content (see Fig. 1). The Cosmos we now occupy, consists of light’s symmetry group revealed in its low-energy, conserved, asymmetric, bound and temporal form as massive atomic matter, charge, gravity, time, and information. (See: “Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory”.)

All the conservation laws and forces of the Cosmos work continuously to maintain, conserve, and/or restore its original symmetric energy state (light), even as the information content of matter evolves (in the biological realm) toward a fractal iteration of its Creator. (See: “Teilhard de Chardin: Prophet of the Information Age”.)

Returning the material system to symmetry in the absence of antimatter is the central problem of the Universe, requiring the creation (by gravity) of a new (alternative) entropy-carrying dimension: time. The historical maintenance of charge invariance in a world of relative rather than absolute motion, composed of both light and matter, space and time, is a challenge met by the field vectors of the four forces, which are themselves compounded of matter and anti-matter (or are their own anti-particles) expressly for this purpose. (See: “Global vs Local Gauge Symmetry in the Tetrahedron Model”.)

The Symmetry Groups of Light

John A. Gowan (Revised April, 2013)

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Cosmic Transformation: Multiverse –> Universe (creation of our Universe as a conserved electromagnetic subset of the Multiverse). Gravitational negative temporal energy balances electromagnetic positive spatial energy; charge balances anti-charge (matter vs anti-matter). The universe is created from a condition of zero net energy and zero net charge: therefore and thereafter the total system must be conserved (must continue to sum to zero net energy and charge).

Before Symmetry-Breaking: “Theory of Everything” (“TOE” – all forces unified).

Planck Era “Order” level: fermions combined with bosons – all electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational energy forms unified.

Group 1 – leptons) Primordial electromagnetic group: charged elementary leptons x anti-leptons (see Fig. 1). Electron, muon, tau, leptoquark, plus a neutrino for each (and antiparticles). Only elementary leptonic particles are distinguished by neutrino “identity” charges. Electric charge, “identity” (AKA lepton “number” or “flavor” charge), spin, and left-right handedness (parity) are also present as conserved parameters.

Group 2 – hadrons) Quarks are produced from “leptoquarks” (primordial, very heavy leptons), where they originate as triplets (the leptoquark splits into three subunits) (see Fig. 2). In the primordial “quark soup” they recombine in quark-antiquark pairs (mesons) or again as electrically charged triplets (baryons). Electrically neutral baryon combinations (produced by the “Y” IVBs) persist into the next lower (GUT) energy level.

Energy Transformations: Free (massless) EM energy (waveform) –> particle-antiparticle form of bound (massive) EM energy. Symmetry parameters are transformed to and conserved as charges. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. All four physics forces (including gravity) are involved in the conversion of massless light to primordial massive leptonic particles, including leptoquarks.

Elementary particle transformations: Primordial leptoquarks are converted from electrically charged to electrically neutral by “Y” IVBs (see Fig. 1). This transformation is considerably facilitated by the merger of all fermion identities at the TOE energy level. These electrically neutral leptoquarks persist into the symmetry-breaking realm of the “X” IVBs (see GUT Era below). Leptoquarks are the heavy terminus of the leptonic spectrum of elementary particles, split in thirds (the nascent quarks) due to the self-repulsion of its own electric charge in the overly-massive corpus of the particle – setting a natural upper limit to the leptonic mass spectrum.

Higgs(y), “Y” family of IVBs. The Higgs(y) gauges the energy level of the TOE and the “Y” IVBs. The Higgs is to the mass relations of the “particle zoo” what “c” is to the metric relations of spacetime. (See: “Table of the Higgs Cascade”.)

During Symmetry-Breaking: “Grand Unified Theory” (GUT – strong and EW forces unified).

Leptoquark Era “Family” level: all fermions combined with one another (= leptons combined with hadrons); bosons separate.

Group 3 – mixed) Leptoquarks – electrically neutral only: particle-antiparticle pairs – 18 possible pairs (18 different ways to create a neutral 3-quark baryon from our given 6 quark flavors); leptoquark

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neutrinos and anti-neutrinos are part of this mixed group. This group is important because it permits the asymmetric weak force decays which produce our matter-only universe. (currently no diagram)

Elementary particle transformations: matter-only hyperons created from the asymmetric weak force decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks (mediated by “X” IVBs, with the emission of leptoquark anti-neutrinos). Leptoquarks may be transformed at the GUT level but are first created at the TOE level. (Leptoquark anti-neutrinos are obvious candidates for “dark matter” WIMPS.)

Alternative charge carriers: leptons, neutrinos (carrying electric and “identity” charges); mesons (carrying partial quark charges). Alternative charge carriers act in place of antiparticles, permitting decays rather than causing annihilations. Alternative charge carriers play a crucial facilitating role in breaking the primordial symmetry of light and its particle-antiparticle pairs, and afterward, in balancing charges between matter-only dissimilar charge partners (as in the familiar electron-proton pair).

Higgs(x), “X” family of IVBs. “X” IVBs mediate the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks to hyperons (heavy baryons); “X” IVBs also mediate “proton decay”. Higgs(x) gauges the energy level of the GUT and the “X” IVBs. (See: “The Origin of Matter and Information”.)

After Symmetry-Breaking, “Electroweak” (EW – electric and weak forces unified):

Matter-only Hyperon Era “Genus” level: all leptons combined with themselves, all hadrons combined with themselves, but leptons and hadrons remain separate from each other (see Fig. 4).

Elementary particle transformations: heavy hyperons decay to less massive and ground state baryons, leptons, and leptonic neutrinos (via the “W” IVB); likewise, the “W” IVB mediates the decay of heavy leptons. Creation, destruction, and transformation of single elementary particles (quarks and leptons); transformations (only) of baryons. Baryons may be created or destroyed only at higher energy (“GUT” level).

Higgs(w), “W” family of IVBs. The Higgs “W” gauges the EW energy level and the “W” family of IVBs. (See: “The ‘W’ IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism”; see also: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”.)

“Rebound” to Symmetry: EM (“Electromagnetic”) “Ground State” of “Ordinary” Matter; (EM – all forces separate).

Atomic, Chemical, Information, and Biological Era; Periodic Table elements; “Species” level: electrons, protons, neutrons. Chemical (electron shell) transformations only; all nuclear transformations belong to EW level (above). Rebound phase begins (restoring (conserving) the original symmetric energy state of the universe and light); gravitational creation of planets, stars, galaxies and cosmic megastructure.

Chemical/molecular transformations; electron shell transformations; information transformations; creation of life and the biological realm. Higher-order “emergent” information processing and creation, fractal iterations of fundamental forces, including evolution and creative drives. (See: “The Information Pathway”.)

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All forces act to return matter to light: fission, fusion, radioactive particle and proton decay, matter x antimatter annihilations, the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, quasar conversion of gravitational potential energy, “Hawking radiation” of black holes. Note the similarity between the black hole and the initial TOE state, in that gravity is equivalent in strength to, or united with, the other forces (see Fig. 9). Gravity simplifies and completes the mixed partial symmetry groups of matter either through proton decay within a black hole’s event horizon, or through the extraction of antimatter from spacetime outside the event horizon, producing Hawking’s “quantum radiance”, the ultimate fulfillment of Noether’s symmetry conservation theorem. (See: “A Tetrahedron Model of the Unified Field Theory”.)

The appended diagrams suggest solutions to certain of light’s symmetry groups in the format of the “Tetrahedron Model”. These diagrams are also intended to illustrate the deep connections between the “Standard Model” of physics and the “Tetrahedron Model” as presented in these web pages.

Many thanks to my dear wife Esther for preparing these diagrams!!

Fig. 1 “The Symmetry Groups of Light: The Leptonic Spectrum”. Theory of Everything (TOE)

Energy Level – all forces unified.

The leptons are the only truly elementary particles. Leptons are the original symmetry group – all else derives from them (through asymmetric weak force decays of electrically neutral “leptoquarks”, the postulated heaviest member of the leptonic spectrum or series). There are two kinds of “normal” or low-energy leptons, a massive series: electron, muon, and tau; and a (nearly) massless “companion” series of neutrinos, one associated with each massive lepton: ve, vu, vt. The neutrinos are the explicit form of leptonic “identity charges”, and are a distinguishing feature of the truly elementary particles. Only leptons have associated neutrinos; the sub-elementary quarks have none. The massive leptons also carry identity charges, but in “hidden” form. Leptonic identity charge is strictly conserved (like electric charge), and must remain balanced between left- and right-handed charge vs anti-charge. All matter neutrinos are left-handed, all anti-matter neutrinos are right-handed. Because the hidden charges of the massive leptons also figure in this conservation accounting, and because our universe consists only of matter, the weak force mediation of transformations involving neutrinos is exclusively “left-handed”. The weakforce is therefore said to “violate parity”; however, parity would be restored if the universe could contain both matter and antimatter. Number charge is hidden in the massive leptons because they cannot travel at velocity c, and therefore cannot conserve the handed charge.

Leptonic transformations are mediated by the weak force “W” family of “Intermediate Vector Bosons” (IVBs), and always include the emission of neutrino identity charges to balance the hidden identity charges of the massive leptons, should the latter either enter or leave equations or “real” (as opposed to “virtual”) spacetime.

“Identity” charge (AKA lepton “number” charge) is the most basic of the several charges of matter which code for the symmetry debts of light. It is the analog in physics of the human soul in metaphysics. It has recently been discovered (see Scientific American April 2013) that neutrinos naturally transform or oscillate into one another as they travel (hence announcing they are in fact a

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natural symmetry group); however, they nevertheless react only with their appropriate massive leptonic partner and anti-charge. Neutrino “oscillation” solved the long-standing problem of the “missing neutrinos” emanating from our Sun.

A 3rd type of lepton is hypothetical, the very high-energy “leptoquark”, which caps the high-energy mass spectrum of the leptonic series, and provides a necessary link between the leptons and quarks. Leptoquarks exist only at the highest energy of the very early micro-moments of the “Big Bang”. The speculation is that this fourth member of the leptonic mass series is simply too massive to be stable, and so splits into 3 subunits (quarks) under the self-repulsion of its own electric charge. Splitting an elementary particle should be forbidden, and so the symmetry/charge conservation laws “in protest” give rise to the strong force, color charge, and gluon field of the quarks, which function to “confine” their fractional charges to whole quantum unit combinations (the baryons and mesons).

As a genuine member of the elementary leptonic mass spectrum, the leptoquark also has a neutrino coding for its identity (vLq). This neutrino is a natural “dark matter” candidate, as it may be very heavy. One anti-leptoquark neutrino should exist for every baryon in the universe, balancing its leptonic number charge. In the universe today, the leptonic symmetry group does not exist with all its antimatter members. Therefore, the full leptonic symmetry group should be regarded as “virtual”, theoretical, or as existing only when the early universe still contained its full antimatter complement.

Fig. 1 “The Symmetry Groups of Light: The Leptonic Spectrum

Fig. 2 “The Symmetry Groups of Light: leptoquarks”. Grand Unified Theory (GUT) Energy Level –

strong and electroweak forces unified.

Perhaps the simplest way to think about the origin of quarks, gluons, and the strong force “color” charge is to imagine they derive from the splitting of a primordial, massive, elementary leptonic particle – a “leptoquark”. Such a particle would form the upper limit of the elementary leptonic mass series – in fact it would be so massive that it would be unstable to the self-repulsion of its own electric charge. Splitting its mass and charge into three parts (the quarks) then represents a “survival strategy” to achieve a permanently stable internal home pagemass configuration and charge distribution.

The price to pay for subdividing an elementary lepton is the fractional charges of the quarks, which threaten to violate symmetry and charge conservation if they cannot be cancelled, annihilated, or otherwise neutralized by the whole quantum unit charges of the other members of the elementary particle spectrum. The strong force solves this conservation problem by confining the quarks permanently to whole quantum unit charge configurations (baryons and mesons), by virtue of its peculiar force law, which grows stronger with distance. However, this anomalous strong-force law makes perfect sense in the context of symmetry conservation among fractionally charged subatomic units, for symmetry conservation (charge conservation) is increasingly threatened as these fractional charges separate and attempt to escape as individuals, whereas the conservation threat is reduced as they crowd together at a common center. This behavior produces the phenomenon of “asymptotic freedom” (see: Gross, Politzer, Wilczek: Science: 15 October 2004 vol. 306 page 400: “Laurels to Three Who Tamed Equations of Quark Theory”), in which at the limit of mutual proximity, the strong force vanishes completely. Again this makes sense in that the strong force is transmitted by a gluon

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field comprised of color-anticolor charges in all combinations, which simply sum to zero when it is physically added up. This vanishing of the (conserved) color charge sets the stage for both “proton decay” (perhaps in the interior of black holes) and the asymmetric leptonic decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks as mediated by the highly compressive forces of the “X” IVBs during the early micro-moments of the “Big Bang” – home pagethe primordial symmetry-breaking reactions that produced our “matter-only” universe.

The pathway to symmetry-breaking (of the original light and its primordial particle-antiparticle pairs) is through the asymmetric weak force decay of electrically neutral and colorless leptoquarks (imagine colorless neutrons), leptoquarks rendered colorless by the immense compressive forces of the “X” IVBs and/or the ultra-high energy density of the early “Big Bang”. Electrical neutrality is a necessary prerequisite for these primordial leptoquark particles, if they are to live long enough to undergo a weak force decay (otherwise they annihilate with their antimatter charge partners immediately), which brings us back to the necessity of quark fractional charges for the primordial symmetry-breaking mechanism. This pathway will be broader the more ways there are to create electrically neutral configurations within baryons, which perhaps helps to explain the utility of the three energy levels of quarks, since 6 neutron-like leptoquarks or baryons can be formed within each of the home pagethree “families” of quarks.

The strong force consists of the “round-robin” exchange (at velocity c) of virtual gluons between quarks. Because gluons consist of color-anticolor charge pairs in every combination (except green- antigreen, which is doubly neutral), the quarks are constantly alternating between a red, green, or blue color charge, without regard to their different “flavors” or masses, just as electric charge is insensitive to the different masses of its carrier particles. The great difference between the exchange of virtual photons vs gluons is that gluons attract each other, whereas photons do not. Hence the massless gluons have been compared to “sticky light”. It is the attraction of one gluon for another that results in the peculiar strong force confinement mechanism. The gluons and color charges form a natural symmetry group independently of the masses (“flavors”) of their carrier quarks, with the baryons and mesons representing a “white” or stable configuration of allowed whole quantum unit charge states, while the leptoquark (as mediated and compressed by the massive “X” IVB) represents a summation and return of the individual quarks and gluons to their original leptonic state, lacking any color charge at all.

Fig. 2 “The Symmetry Groups of Light: leptoquarks”

Fig.3 “The Symmetry Groups of Light: Strong Force “Flavor” Charges.

Like the leptons, the hadrons (particles composed of quarks) are another obvious example of one of light’s fundamental symmetry groups. Hadrons occur as “baryons” containing three quarks (like the familiar proton or neutron), including a number of unfamiliar and short-lived “hyperons” consisting of one or more heavy quark flavors. A second form of hadron is the meson, composed of quark- antiquark pairs – the only other type of hadron known to exist (mesons also may contain heavy quark

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flavors). Quarks do not exist individually, but only as baryons or mesons. Given sufficient energy, and with the mediation and facilitation of alternative charge carriers (leptons, neutrinos, mesons), most baryons can transform into other baryons, most mesons can transform into other mesons, and most quarks can transform into other quarks. (See: “The ‘W’ IVBs and the Weak Force Mechanism”. However, mesons cannot transform into baryons and vice versa, hence mesons and barons must be considered two distinct subgroups within the hadrons. Within the leptons, we also find two distinct subgroups, the massive, electrically charged leptons vs the chargeless and (nearly) massless neutrinos. All these groups, however, find ways to at least interact with each other with the assistance of the “W” family of weak force IVBs and the services of alternative charge carriers.

The several flavor charges of the massive leptons are associated with and conserved by corresponding neutrinos; neutrinos are simply the “explicit” or free form of leptonic “identity” charges (AKA lepton “number” or “flavor” charges). Leptons are elementary particles, and nature is extremely “picky” regarding the conserved parameters of elementary particles. No massive lepton (such as the electron) can appear, disappear, or be otherwise transformed in any reaction without conserving its identity charge via the emission of a neutrino or antineutrino, or the transfer of its identity charge to another exactly identical particle, or the complete annihilation and cancellation of the particle and all its charges with a corresponding antiparticle.

Unlike the leptons, the individual quarks have no associated neutrino, and they can appear, disappear, and be transformed without the necessity to conserve their flavor charges. How are we to understand this (apparently) fundamental difference between the leptons and quarks? The solution to this puzzle is actually simple enough, when one remembers that quarks are not elementary particles, but sub-elementary particles, and baryons are not elementary either, but are composed of quarks. Both are derived from the leptoquark, which is an elementary particle (the massive end-point of the elementary leptonic series), and the leptoquark is associated with a leptoquark neutrino, which codes for the identity not only of the original leptoquark, but for any hyperons and baryons subsequently derived from it (in a “cascade” decay, for example). Now recall also the “hidden” number charges carried by the ordinary members of the massive leptonic series, and you will realize that we are confronted with the same phenomenon in the quark flavor charges – they also carry “hidden” number charges, subdivisions of the also-hidden baryon number charge which itself is derived from the hidden leptoquark number charge of its primordial massive ancestor.

Lepton number charge = leptoquark number charge = baryon number charge, and they all have “explicit” free forms as neutrino “identity” charges, and “hidden” forms carried by the massive members of the series. Since baryons always transform into other baryons, its hidden number charge is just passed along from one baryon host to the next. No single baryon has ever been seen to simply appear or disappear in any reaction (instead, always as a particle-antiparticle pair); despite extensive and continuing searches, no one has ever seen “proton decay” or the explicit form of baryon number charge – the leptoquark neutrino. Recall also that the reason why number charge is and must be hidden in the massive leptons is that leptonic identity charge is “handed”: all neutrinos are left-handed, while all anti-neutrinos are right handed. Handedness is just the way matter identity charges are distinguished from antimatter identity charges. The problem is that this type of charge can only be strictly conserved in massless particles traveling at velocity “c” – so nature simply finesses the conservation problem by “hiding” the handedness identity charge when it occurs in massive particles which cannot travel at light speed. It’s like a “virtual charge”, not so different from “virtual particles”,

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which are also quite real but hidden from our view.

In principle, “baryon number charge” can be seen in its explicit neutrino form (as a leptoquark neutrino vLq) only during proton creation or decay, but neither process has ever been observed. The leptoquark antineutrino is an obvious “dark matter” candidate (WIMP), as it may be quite heavy, and one should exist for every baryon in the universe (therefore leptoquark anti-neutrinos should be several times as heavy as a proton, if current estimates of total dark matter energy are correct). Proton decay cannot happen unless the conserved color charge also self-annihilates (presumably via the “X” IVB, or due to the extreme pressure inside a black hole). Hence proton decay either requires the spacetime coincidence of two extremely rare events, or in the case of the black hole, cannot be seen at all.

Fig.3 http//:www.johnagowan.org/tetrahadrons.pdf.

Fig. 4: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: Sub-atomic Particles of the ‘Standard Model'”.

Fig. 4 shows all the particles of the “Standard Model” as they are known today. All vertices of the diagram will transform into one another with the aid of the weak force “W” family of IVBs and the “alternative charge carriers” (leptons, neutrinos, mesons, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs). These transformations are detailed in various papers on my website such as: “The ‘W’ IVBs and the Weak Force Mechanism”; “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”; “The Weak Force Identity Charge”; “The Strong Force: Two Expressions”; and “The Particle Table”, among others. Suffice it here to say that the weak force rationale is the creation of single elementary particles (leptons, neutrinos, quarks) that are in all respects the same as any others of their kind ever created – or that ever will be created. To this end (an obvious desideratum of the conservation laws) the great mass of the IVBs (as gauged by the Higgs boson) recreates the original conditions of energy density in which these particles were first created: the “electroweak symmetric energy state” during the “Big Bang Creation Event”.

The electroweak symmetric energy state (the energy density at which the electric and weak forces are joined) consists of a “generic” level of particle identity in which all “species” of leptons are united and can freely transform into one another, and likewise all quarks merge their separate “flavor” identities and may freely transform into one another. Baryon transformations (including hyperons) are therefore possible at the electroweak energy level, but not baron creation or destruction. Baryon creation/destruction is presumed to occur at the next higher energy level of force unification, the GUT level of Fig. 2 and the “X” IVB family (in which leptons and quarks merge their “generic” identities in a combined “fermion family” of the leptoquark era, during which matter is created – probably via the asymmetric weak force decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks.

Recall that this symmetry group is fundamentally asymmetric in that it consists only of matter particles. This fundamental asymmetry is reflected in the universal weak force “parity” violation in which the weak force participates only in left-handed interactions – because it has only matter to interact with (the antimatter all having been destroyed in the “Big Bang”). As indicated in the diagram, we have only one-half of the original symmetry group, with the antiparticles not shown. Antimatter is still abundantly present in our universe, however, but mostly in a virtual state, where it

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is essential for all kinds of transformations among particles.

Even the center of our sun is only hot enough to produce transformations involving the U, D quarks of the “A” or lowest-energy vertex in the diagram. Transformations involving the heavy quark flavors occur only in the early universe or in the ultra-high temperatures of our largest accelerators.

Figure 4 is an attempt to represent diagrammatically the connection between leptons and quarks. The leptonic set or “group” is represented by the large triangle, one elementary lepton at each apex (electron, muon, tau), the quark set by the small interior triangles (representing baryons from each quark family), while the leptoquark is shown at a fourth apex (making the figure a tetrahedron). The essence of the relationship is that the quarks are a resonant subset of the leptons. When the original leptoquark is subdivided into three quarks (due to its huge mass), all other nodes in the leptonic set (the elementary particles) respond with similar (but lower energy) subdivisions, producing the three quark families (u,d; c,s; t,b). Within any resonant set, what affects one will, by the principle of sympathetic harmonics, affect all other members of the set. This is why it is so important to recognize the leptoquark as a true member of the leptonic set (with its own neutrino), albeit the highest energy, most massive, most primordial, and most ephemeral member (which vanishes during the “Big Bang”). Sauce for the leptoquark is sauce for all the other leptonic elementary particles, leaving us with three families of quarks in parallel with three elementary leptons.

Fig. 4: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: Sub-atomic Particles of the ‘Standard Model'” http://www.johnagowan.org/tetrapart.pdf

Fig. 6: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: A Universe of Light”.

Figure 6 is an idealization of a universe composed only of light, useful for comparison with Fig. 7, the latter showing our universe as it actually is – filled with the asymmetric matter-only residue of the “Big Bang”. In Fig. 6 we see conservation laws as they apply to light; however, it is these same laws that produce the asymmetric matter-only universe of our immediate experience as a response to breaking the symmetry of light and its matter-antimatter pairs during the “Creation Event” (or “Big Bang”). The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether’s Theorem). In Fig. 6 we begin to see where those charges come from and what broken symmetries they represent, code for, and conserve. (See: “Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory”.)

The three major parameters of light’s free spatial form that will require conservation when light (free electromagnetic energy) is converted to matter (bound electromagnetic energy) are: 1) total raw energy; 2) entropy; 3) symmetry. Light’s raw energy is conserved as the mass and momentum of particles; light’s entropy, which manifests as intrinsic spatial motion (gauged by “velocity c”), creates, expands, and cools the spatial dimensions of the universe, and will be transferred and conserved as time’s intrinsic motion (by the action of gravity), creating, aging, and decaying the historical universe. Light’s symmetry, which takes two principle forms (virtual charge-anticharge particle pairs, and the inertially symmetric and timeless spatial metric), is transformed to and conserved as the various real charges of matter and the gravitationally warped metric of spacetime. Light’s inertial spatial metric is a composite of entropy and symmetry conservation, in which the temporal/gravitational component is completely suppressed at velocity c, as are actual (rather than virtual) massive particles and the

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charges they carry. The entire diagram is gauged by the electromagnetic constant “c”. Dirac/Heisenberg virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, which are hidden or latent in light and the spacetime “vacuum”, represent the original, dormant information content of the Cosmos, waiting to be awakened by the “Big Bang” and the asymmetric decays of the weak force. (See: “Entropy, Gravity, and Thermodynamics”.)

In the universe of pure light, energy is only in the form of freely moving massless photons; entropy is only in the form of expanding and cooling space; light’s symmetry is expressed through spatial timeless metric symmetry and the equal representation of matter and antimatter in virtual pairs of oppositely electrically charged particles, which annihilate each other as soon as they are formed, restoring (conserving) the perfect symmetry of the light-energy which formed them. This is the fundamental symmetry conservation role of electric charge – preventing the spontaneous conversion of free electromagnetic energy (light) to bound electromagnetic energy (massive particles). Hence in the light universe, there are no massive particles, no gravity, no charges, and no time. The metric is entirely non-local and acausal. All this will change when the symmetry of light and its virtual particle- antiparticle pairs is broken by the asymmetric action of the weak force, producing an excess of matter hyperons from the decays of electrically neutral leptoquarks (via the “X” IVBs). (See: “The Origin of Matter and Information”.) (See: Fig. 2, Fig 3.)

Fig. 6: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: A Universe. of Light”

Fig. 7: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: A Universe of Matter”

Fig. 7 shows the universe as we find it today, an asymmetric collection of matter-only particles, atoms, and elements. Unlike Fig. 6, the weak force in Fig. 7 has broken the primordial symmetry of light and its particle-antiparticle pairs – probably via the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks via the “X” IVBs. The Dirac/Heisenberg virtual particle-antiparticles pairs of light and the spacetime “vacuum” constitute the inherent, latent information content of the universe, waiting for the weak force to release it into the explicit form of particles, atoms, and eventually, the elements of the periodic table.

Once light’s primordial symmetric energy state is broken, multiple conservation responses are entrained. Light (free electromagnetic energy) is the most symmetric form of energy known, and therefore the most “primitive”. Light is two-dimensional, massless, timeless, non-local, carries no charges of any kind, and produces no gravitational field (when in free flight). All forms of energy (possibly excepting gravitation) begin as light and in the end return to light.

Light’s raw energy is conserved as the mass and momentum of particles, in accordance with Einstein’s famous formula: E = mcc. Light’s entropy, which is expressed through light’s intrinsic motion “c” (creating, expanding, and cooling space), is transferred to and conserved as time’s intrinsic motion (creating, aging, and decaying history). In other words, the spatial entropy drive of free electromagnetic energy is converted to, and conserved as, the historical entropy drive of bound electromagnetic energy. Since matter cannot move with intrinsic (entropic) motion “c”, matter’s time

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dimension must move with a metrically equivalent entropic motion “T”. (See: “Spatial vs Temporal Entropy”.) The conversion of light’s entropic drive to matter’s entropic drive is accomplished by gravity, which collapses and annihilates space, extracting a metrically equivalent temporal residue. (See: “The Conversion of Space to Time”.)

Light’s symmetries are principally conserved in two forms: by charge conservation in atomic matter, and by the inertial forces of the metric, including gravitation; and such effects as “Lorentz Invariance” involving the covariance of space and time, functioning to conserve the invariance of the “Interval” and causality. Gravity conserves both light’s entropic drive (by converting space to time), and light’s symmetric energy state (by converting bound to free electromagnetic energy, as in the sun, stars, quasars, etc.). This gravitational conversion goes to completion via Hawking’s “quantum radiance” of black holes. (See: “A Description of Gravity”; See also: “The Double Conservation Role of Gravity.)

The asymmetric weak force converts light’s symmetric particle-antiparticle pairs to matter-only particles during the “Big Bang” – thereby releasing the sleeping “virtual” information content of the universe to the real-time charges of atomic matter. (See: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”.) This particle-antiparticle expression of light’s symmetry is converted to atomic charges and conserved through the strict principle of charge conservation. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether’s Theorem – See: Noether`s Theorem and Einstein’s “Interval”.) Noether’s theorem provides us with a single conceptual mantel under which we can unify all four forces of physics – they all originate as symmetry debts of light. (See: “Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory”.)

Electric charge originally functions to annihilate particle-antiparticle pairs, thereby preventing the spontaneous conversion of light to massive particles, and hence protecting light’s non-local symmetric energy state. The strong force functions to maintain whole quantum units of charge, so they may be neutralized, cancelled, or annihilated by other elementary whole-charge units. The weak force creates single elementary particles that are the same as any other of their kind ever created – or that ever will be created, and provides them with an “identity” charge to ensure the possibility of their timely annihilation by a corresponding antiparticle. The gravitational force conserves both light’s intrinsic motion (entropy conservation) and light’s metric symmetry and non-local symmetric energy distribution (symmetry conservation), via the conversion of space to time and bound to free energy – as in our Sun. (See: “A Rationale for Gravity”.)

The challenge posed to our universe is this: can matter find a pathway to return to its original symmetric energy state (light) in the absence of antimatter? The answer is yes, given the extra dimension of time and the all-conserving force of gravitation. (See: “A Tetrahedron Model of the Unified Field Theory”.)

Fig. 7: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: A Universe of Matter”

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Fig. 9: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: The Black Hole”.

(See: Section II: Introduction to Gravitation; See also: Why Gravity? A Rationale for Gravitation.)

Figure 9 (our last) is a departure from the series of tetrahedrons that in one way or another lead up to it. The black hole is a culmination of nature’s conservation laws, in particular the gravitational law, as gravity completely overwhelms and replaces the other forces of physics and the electromagnetic domain of spatial reality.

The black hole is the most bizarre and mysterious of all astrophysical objects – indeed of all objects in nature. We were completely mystified regarding its role, purpose, or conservation goal until Stephen Hawking discovered the process of “quantum radiance”: black holes actually have a temperature and (slowly) radiate away their rest mass. Eventually the entire rest mass of any black hole will be converted to radiant energy (light) by “Hawking radiation”. In other words, the black hole is the finale of the gravitational quest for symmetry conservation, which begins, as we have seen in Fig. 8, with the stars. Unlike the conversion of mass to light by the usual thermonuclear pathway of stars, “Hawking radiation” is a true quantum interaction involving a kind of “tunneling” from the surface of the event horizon, due to an interaction between the virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of the “vacuum” of spacetime and the extreme gravitational “tidal” forces near the “event horizon”.

I have drawn Fig. 9 as a circle/sphere rather than a tetrahedron, because there is only one force present in the black hole – gravity has replaced all other forces, including the electromagnetic metric of spacetime. What we have is a gravitational metric instead, the event horizon consisting of a pure time surface. The event horizon is where the gravitational acceleration is equal to velocity “c” – preventing the escape even of light from the black hole. At g = c, time stands still (one second lasts forever, the time dimension becomes monolithic, replacing space) and meter sticks shrink to nothing (again, space replaced by time), apparently the same condition that obtains at velocity c, but in the latter case we think of time as actually vanishing, as being replaced completely by space. So in a backhanded way, gravity and the temporal metric restore matter to its original symmetric state of intrinsic motion c – “the extremes meet” at the event horizon of the black hole, where the spatial entropy drive of light and the temporal entropy drive of matter become equal. Here we see the temporal metric of gravitation producing an alternative type of symmetric energy state; in effect, the temporal metric is saying: “I can play this metric game, too, and here’s what it looks like when I do it my way.” The (extreme) gravitational metric causes space (and everything in it) to move at “c”, the electromagnetic metric causes only light to move at “c”. The gravitational metric is a temporal metric, and we note here that both gravitational space and the time dimension are moving dimensions. In fact, as we have seen (Fig. 8), a gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time.

I like to think of the black hole as the end-point of the takeover of the spatial metric of electromagnetism by the temporal metric of gravity. Just as we can think of an ordinary rock as the energy of light transformed to an asymmetric state (matter) and brought to rest – so too we can think of the black hole as the entropy drive of light (light’s intrinsic motion) transformed to an asymmetric state (time) and brought to rest. The black hole is a temporal entropy “rock”. In the black hole we see time in an actual physical form; it is black because time has completely displaced space and we cannot see into a time surface – it is a perfect “black body” absorbing all the radiation that falls upon it.

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It seems likely that “proton decay” is commonplace inside black holes, especially at the central “singularity”, where sufficient pressure, symmetrically applied, is available to cause the self-annihilation of the color charge of baryons – the precondition necessary for “proton decay”. Hence the black hole may well be filled only with trapped light – removing the problem of the “infinite density” of the singularity.

With matter restored to “velocity c” by the temporal metric outside the hole, and matter restored to light by “proton decay” inside the hole, and “quantum radiance” converting the rest mass of the hole to light, we can begin to understand why nature is so fond of black holes. It is also true that black holes, in the form of quasars, are far more efficient than the thermonuclear fusion pocesses of stars in the conversion of the rest mass of in-falling matter to light. We should also note in closing that the temporal entropy drive of the black hole, being one-way in time, is less symmetric than the “all-way” spatial entropy drive of light. Hence the gravitational conversion of mass to light extends gravity’s symmetry-conservation role even to the entropy drive of matter, in complete obedience to Noether’s Theorem. (See: “Information in the Holographic Universe” by Jacob D. Bekenstein: Scientific American August, 2003 PP. 58-65.)

If the black hole is indeed filled with trapped light, then gravitation and the temporal metric have achieved a common symmetry-conservation goal – the conversion of mass to light – within their own domain. Sharing this information or these trapped photons with the outside world of the electromagnetic metric and arena of space may have limited (if any) value from a conservation point of view – at least from the perspective of the temporal metric. The one-way entropy issue may only be relevant to an observer outside the event horizon. This may help explain the extreme slowness of the radiation release in the Hawking process. Assuming this scenario is correct, we find that the conservation goal of one-way gravity and one-way time are the same – the conversion of mass to light, or bound electromagnetic energy to free electromagnetic energy. So all forces, in the end, lead to the same result. This all makes sense if indeed, as postulated in these webpages, time and gravity engender each other. (See: Section II: Introduction to Gravitation; See also: Why Gravity? A Rationale for Gravitation.)

Fig. 9: “The Symmetry Groups of Light: The Black Hole”

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References

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin The Phenomenon of Man. French: Editions du Seuil, Paris, 1955. English: Harper and Row, New York, 1959.

Books by my late father Prof. John Curtis Gowan

“Trance, Art, Creativity” An Investigation of the Numinous Element and the

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Metaphysical Realm. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr.

“Operations of Increasing Order” Further Investigations of the Numinous Element and the Metaphysical Realm. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr.

“Development of the Psychedelic Individual”. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr. “Development of the Creative Individual”. A Book by Prof. John C. Gowan, Sr.

Keith Devlin The Language of Mathematics Chapt. 5 “The Mathematics of Beauty”, 1998 W. H. Freeman & Co. (Holt Paperbacks).

Ian Stewart Why Beauty is Truth Chapt. 13 “The Five Dimensional Man”, Basic Books 2007. Roy McWeeny Symmetry, 2002, Dover Pub. Inc.

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Alternative Charge Carriers and the Higgs Boson John A. Gowan

(Revised August, 2016)

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Abstract

A functional class of particles, the “Alternative Charge Carriers” (ACCs), is recognized as characteristic of the Electroweak domain and the Weak Force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs).

The photon is the massless gauge boson of the electromagnetic force, and its intrinsic entropic motion (“velocity c”) creates the metric domain of spacetime; the Higgs boson is the massive gauge particle of the electroweak force, creating the “particle metric” or “zoo” of electroweak spacetime, the “Alternative Charge Carriers” (ACCs) (leptons, mesons, neutrinos), in both virtual and “real” forms. In a universe lacking antimatter – such as ours – ACCs serve to balance charges and preserve charge conservation during particle interactions. ACCs enable the decay of heavy hyperons, quarks, and lepton “families” to our familiar electromagnetic ground state through channels that obey charge conservation, despite the lack of antimatter in our Cosmos. Hence the ACCs are yet another conservation consequence of our “matter-only” Universe. The Higgs boson may be thought of as a gauge particle or “marker” for the convergence of the weak and electromagnetic forces: the specific energy level necessary for the weak force creation of single members of the ACC class of particles.

Space is the entropic/energetic conservation domain of massless light (free electromagnetic energy); historic spacetime is the entropic/energetic conservation domain of massive particles (bound electromagnetic energy). While the photon establishes a dimensional “spacetime metric” (in which 300,000 kilometers of distance is metrically equivalent to one second of time), the Higgs boson establishes an electroweak particle metric or “symmetric energy state” at 125 GEV (in which the electric and weak forces are equivalent). Both are symmetry conditions, for at “velocity c” the asymmetric time dimension vanishes, and at 125 GEV the specific identities of the leptons are subsumed into a single generic leptonic identity, and likewise the specific flavors of the quarks vanish into a single generic quark identity. It is these generic identities (symmetric energy states) which the weak force IVBs “sample” to select specific quark/leptonic flavors for the purpose of identity transformations among elementary particles. We may think of the Higgs boson as the gauge boson of the electroweak particle “zoo”, or virtual particle “sea”, of the Heisenberg/Dirac spacetime “vacuum”.

The “Standard Model” of the “Higgs mechanism” of the electroweak force proposes four Higgs particles – one each for the W+, W-, and Z neutral (the “Intermediate Vector Bosons” (IVBs) or field vectors of the weak force), and a fourth scalar boson which gauges the intersection of the weak and electromagnetic forces. This fourth Higgs is the one recently discovered at CERN. (See: “Most Wanted Particle” by Jon Butterworth, 2014, The Experiment LLC, pages 96-99 and 237 – 238; see also: “The Large Hadron Collider” by Don Lincoln 2014, The Johns Hopkins University press, pages 126 and 133 – 135. The W and Z were also discovered – at CERN – in 1983. The math of this complex theory was worked out by Weinberg, Salam, and Glashow, 1967. Peter Higgs (and others) proposed the “Higgs boson” in 1964, as the source of elementary particle mass.`

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In the real world (as opposed to the theoretical/math world), how do we see these theories manifest? Science has long noted that the electromagnetic force with its field vector (the photon of “light”) is evidently composed of two parts, one the massless photon, and the other a virtual component consisting of particle- antiparticle pairs (leptons and quarks), which materialize and annihilate one another essentially instantaneously. Ordinarily, as this virtual particle component of electromagnetic energy tries to materialize, it is kept in its virtual state by matter-antimatter symmetry, which causes the annihilation of these virtual particles as soon as they appear. Such particles comprise a “vacuum sea” of virtual particles, coextensive in our universe with spacetime. Given sufficient energy, this “sea” of virtual particles is available for particle interactions, transformations, and even creation/destruction, and the weak force makes use of it via the mediation of the IVBs.

The great mass of the IVBs reproduces the energy density of the early universe when these particle pairs were in abundant supply and essentially identical to each other (because the energy was so extreme). The massive IVBs are thus enabled to “sample” or select particles from that portion of the “sea” which its mass reproduces (and therefore allows it to access). Selected particles are then used to effect elementary particle interactions/transformations. (See: “The “W” IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism”). This mode of action allows the IVBs to exactly reproduce elementary particles from the original “sea” or primordial source, preserving the necessary universal symmetry of elementary particle parameters of mass, spin, charge, etc. Because the mechanism depends on mass to reproduce these primitive conditions, it is unaffected by the entropic expansion of the spatio/temporal universe; hence electrons produced today are (and must be) identical in all respects to those produced eons ago. This universal and necessary symmetry among elementary particles in terms of mass and other physical parameters is the reason why the weak force is so strange, with its massive IVBs: the weak force must be able to reproduce single elementary particles (not just particle-antiparticle pairs) – that are absolutely identical in every respect to all others (of its type) that have ever been, or ever will be, produced – past, present, future. This is a tall order, and it is one of the defining parameters, constraints, and symmetries of our “matter only” universe, responsible for the oddities of the weak force and the Higgs boson.

Let’s put all this in terms of a familiar analogy: the Higgs mechanism is like a government mint which must stamp out coins in various denominations, but (naturally) of identical value within each denomination. It’s easy to understand why all one cent, five cent, and ten cent coins (etc.), must be of equal value within type (contain the same quantity of precious metal), for the sake of the stability of the country’s financial system and the public trust. Here, money/precious metal is the analog of energy, the financial system represents conservation law (such as the conservation of energy), and the various coin denominations represent the various elementary particles. The Higgs mechanism represents the government mint, and the W and Z IVBs represent the massive presses stamping out coins – some of positive value (W+), some of negative value (W-), and some of neutral value (Z zero), but all useful and necessary for one or another economic transaction/interaction (because even the Z neutrals have value as Alternative Charge Carriers, which in this case we can understand as uncharged information packets).

This government mint resides in a vast country called the electroweak domain, and the coins it stamps out are the electron, muon, and tau, their corresponding neutrinos, and their antiparticles. This mint also produces mesons of positive, negative, and neutral varieties, in various denominations depending upon their quark content. The mesons are used as ACCs in baryon transformations, because they carry various quark flavors (in addition to electric charge), and the leptons and neutrinos are used as ACCs (of electric and identity charge) in transactions and transformations among and between leptons, mesons, and baryons (see: “The ‘W’ IVB and the Weak Force Mechanism”). Within type, all these coins must be identical, for obvious financial

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and energy conservation reasons. The total collection of coin dies and precious metals available from the mint (the range of its potential particle productions) is a cosmic parameter characterized/determined by a particular Higgs boson of unique mass/energy – in this case, the electroweak Higgs scalar boson. The name of this mint is the “Electroweak Alternative Charge Carrier Mint”. It only produces ACCs.

The “heavy hitters” in our electromagnetic domain are baryons (protons and neutrons), as they generally carry much more mass (value) than the leptons. But although the Electroweak Mint (Higgs mechanism) can stamp out mesons with various quark flavor combinations and hence permit the transformation of baryons (as in the decay of a neutron to a proton), the electroweak mint simply does not possess a press (IVB) heavy enough to stamp out (or destroy) baryons themselves. To obtain newly minted baryons we have to visit an entirely different (smaller, hotter, denser) country, the domain of the G.U.T. (Grand Unified Theory). In the country of the GUT the electroweak and strong forces are unified, allowing the minting of single, original baryons. (See: “The Origin of Matter and Information”).

The GUT mint has a very heavy press (the “X” IVB), which can stamp out (or destroy) baryons themselves. But this country is so far away that we will probably never be able to visit (at least not via CERN and the LHC), although we know it exists because we are up to our ears in baryons (protons and neutrons), and they have to come from somewhere. In the electroweak domain, we can transform baryons but we cannot make or destroy them. Like Frodo’s magic ring, baryons can only be destroyed in the furnace where they were created. And there may be yet another country, further away still (smaller, hotter, denser), the “TOE” (“Theory of Everything” or ” Planck” domain), with another mint/Higgs mechanism and an ultraheavy press (“Y” IVBs), which stamps out/destroys leptoquarks. But that domain is so close to the “Big Bang” or “Creation Event” that nobody can get anywhere near it. (See: “The Higgs Mechanism and the Weak Force IVBs”; See also: “Table of the Higgs Cascade”).

We should note that there is no theory for the GUT that suggests it should include a symmetry-breaking photon/IVB split, as in the electroweak domain. Consequently, the GUT mint may not exist within a large spacetime domain; indeed, in our view, proton decay occurs mainly inside black holes. Likewise, proton creation occurs so early in the development of the universe that there is no appreciable spacetime to speak of, and certainly no freely traveling photons. Leptoquark creation is earlier yet (during the TOE), within an even more opaque and spatially constricted arena.

We, obviously, live in the cold and low-energy electromagnetic domain where only chemical interactions (electron shell interactions) are the rule (on planets like Earth). The nuclear transformations in our Sun are the evidence of the activity of the electroweak IVBs creating leptons, neutrinos, mesons (the ACCs), and photons (in the nucleosynthetic process producing helium from hydrogen). We find our planetary chemical electromagnetic domain (which can only muster up, for example, a coal-burning fire), dependent upon the solar energy of nuclear transformations and the IVBs of the electroweak domain. (These same IVBs are also engaged in “radioactive” nuclear transformations here on Earth.)

While the “mint” analogy may be appropriate in terms of energy vs finances, it does not tell us how the presses (IVBs) actually make particles with mass (although compression is implied). I have assumed that the great mass of the IVBs represents an example of the energy density of the early universe during the time the “leptonic spectrum” was first created. Mass is a necessary feature of the Higgs mechanism because mass (as bound energy) is not susceptible to the entropic enervation of cosmic expansion over the eons – ensuring an accurate reproduction of particles whenever/wherever they may be replicated. Mass also suggests compression, and compression may well have a large part to play in the conversion of freely traveling

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electromagnetic waves (photons) into a bound, stationary, or “standing” electromagnetic wave. We know that both massive particles and light are electromagnetic in character and are derived from one another, as matter- antimatter annihilations unambiguously inform us (e = mcc, e = hv, hv = mcc), as do also the high-energy “atom smashers” or colliders (such as the Large Hadron Collider or LHC) at CERN, etc. The exact means whereby light is converted into particles via the Higgs mechanism and IVBs – now or in the early Universe – is not known, but it must involve (at least) a conversion from two to four dimensions and from intrinsic motion in space (at “c”) to intrinsic motion in time with no intrinsic spatial motion; the acquisition of various conserved charges, etc. Possibly a dimensional “knot” is involved. (See: “The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric”.)

As for the mysterious Higgs boson itself, it acts as a boundary marker or “gauge” for the threshold of the electroweak domain, the energy at which the electromagnetic and weak forces join, and (single) Alternative Charge Carriers may be produced. At this high energy all the leptonic particles are equivalent, and all the quark flavors are equivalent (but quarks vs leptonic particles are still separate – they will join in the next higher energy level, in the domain of the GUT). The electroweak energy level is the domain in which (single) Alternative Charge Carriers may be created, destroyed, and/or transformed – mesons, leptons, and neutrinos. It is these ACCs that allow the transformation of baryons (but not their creation or destruction), and ACCs are typical of the energy level of the electroweak force and its usual activity (of which our Sun is the archetypal example). The electroweak energy level allows (via the mediation of the IVBs and ACCs), the nuclear transformations which characterize the stars, while the chemical (electron shell) energy level characterizes the planetary realm. Life utilizes even weaker, specialized biochemical bonds – such as hydrogen bonds. (See: “The Fractal Organization of Nature”.)

The Higgs confers mass upon the weak force IVBs, the “W” and “Z”, but exactly how we do not know (we say the IVBs “sample” the mass-energy domain of the Higgs boson). The IVBs then go on to faithfully reproduce single examples of the ACCs: massive mesons, quarks, leptons and neutrinos. In this view, the Higgs itself does not confer mass directly upon the elementary particles, as in the standard “ether drag” model, but only indirectly through the IVBs, by an unknown mechanism (a “virtual” ACC somehow becomes “real”, via the energetic mediation of a virtual IVB). The mass of an IVB is understood as the energy density of a primordial era, and is not a permanent feature of any particle. Likewise, the Higgs lives only at the intersection of the weak and electromagnetic forces, so it marks and “gauges” the boundary of a symmetric energy state, in which all leptons are equivalent (among themselves), and (likewise) all quarks are equivalent. The IVBs get what mass and particles they require from the symmetric energy state created by the mass- energy of the Higgs.

In the “Standard Model”, the Higgs and the photon separate at the threshold of the electroweak state, the Higgs remaining massive and the photon remaining massless (“electroweak symmetry-breaking”). The photon goes on to create universal spacetime, but the Higgs seems to also be a universal (but “virtual”) feature of this self-same spacetime. Stars everywhere and everywhen use the same electroweak Higgs and IVBs to produce the same nuclear transformations. Nevertheless, the Higgs presence must be virtual, at least in our current cold, “ground state” universe; the “real” Higgs is available on demand given enough energy – as at the LHC (CERN). Presumably, there is a distinct Higgs-like boson distinguishing or “gauging” the boundary of each confluent energy level (the EW, GUT, and TOE); these several different symmetric energy states is one reason why these Higgs-like bosons are necessary partitions or boundary markers within the mechanism producing single, identical, massive, elementary particles.

We live in an era of information-building in the stars (as the electroweak ACCs transform baryons and build

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the elements of the periodic table), and life-building on the planets, as the universe awakens to itself, using the information (from the periodic table) passed down from the stars and the electroweak force to our cool electromagnetic/biochemical planetary domain.

Both the “Steady State” and “Big Bang” cosmologies can be simultaneously entertained: the all-symmetric Multiverse is the “Steady State”, mighty, eternal, immortal, and fertile, forever “budding off” asymmetric universes similar (?) to our own, ephemeral and of explosive origin, but requiring no net energy to create. Our universe would therefore seem to represent an individual excursion into the creative powers of the information domain – perhaps one of infinitely many. In this case the universe is what we make of it, to do with as we wish and are able – including committing suicide by abusing ourselves and/or our planet. The responsibility is all our own, although Nature will help if we work with her rather than against her.

The Enigma of Mass

Single elementary particles acquire “rest mass” (E = mcc) from the weak force IVBs, by revisiting the original energy density of the era in which they were first created (the Higgs energy density). “Rest mass” immediately acquires a gravitational field (and associated time dimension), which is exactly proportional to its total rest mass (Gm), whatever the source of the mass may be, whether elementary particle mass or “binding energy”. “Inertial mass”, or “mass due to acceleration” arises from forcing a particle’s metric- warping gravitational field through the metric field of spacetime (resistance of one metric field to the intrusion of another metric-warping field). Gravitational “weight” (gm) is due to the reciprocal acceleration process – the metric field of spacetime is accelerating through the warping gravitational field of the stationary particle (f = ma). In this series, all the “m’s” are equivalent, and derive from the same “rest mass” source (Einstein’s E =mcc). The Equivalence Principle is upheld and explained. Inertial mass of acceleration is not due to “ether drag” by the Higgs field, but to the “ether drag” of a metric-warping gravitational field as it is forced through another metric field (spacetime), which resists the warping influence of the intruder. “g” forces are absent without acceleration, since in that case the fields are not forcing or extending/expanding their “warping” influences into each other. Although gravitational fields are weak, they extend throughout spacetime. Because the local metric field of spacetime is influenced by the total gravitational effect of all stars/galaxies in the cosmos, this mass-generating mechanism bears a distant relationship to “Mach’s Principle” of inertial resistance. (See: “The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric”.)

Postscript I:

The huge, anomalous masses of the IVBs and the Higgs boson (80, 90, 125 proton masses) tells us that these particles are not part of our ground-state electromagnetic world, not even part of the domain of our atomic nuclei, at least not in their normal ground state. The IVBs must come from an earlier, much more primitive era, smaller, hotter, and far more energy-dense than our own, only a few micro-moments removed from the “Big Bang”, during the time when massless, free waves of electromagnetic energy were somehow being converted to massive, bound particles of electromagnetic energy (leptons, quarks, leptoquarks). How this was done remains a mystery: massless, a-temporal, 2-D photons with intrinsic (entropic) spatial motion “c” were converted to massive, temporal, 4-D particles with no intrinsic spatial motion but with (in compensation) an intrinsic/entropic motion in time. Whatever this conversion mechanism may be, it operated only in the very early universe at very high temperatures and energy densities. However, a remnant of this early conversion force can still be found today, making real transformations and creating/destroying single elementary particles (ACCs), via the mediation of the virtual particle “sea” by the electroweak IVBs.

The huge masses of the Higgs and IVBs reprise the energy-density of the early Cosmos, including the

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mysterious mass-conferring mechanism. The Higgs “gauges” and recreates the electroweak “symmetric energy state”, the energy at which the weak and electromagnetic forces converge. At this energy, all lepton species are merged into a single leptonic “genus”, and likewise, the quark species are merged into a single quark “genus”. These two “genera” do not mix at this level – they mix only at the next higher level, in the “GUT” or “Grand Unified Theory”, where the strong force joins the electroweak force in a three-way convergence. (See: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs). The IVBs are able to make identity transformations among the elementary leptons and quarks because individual species identity is fluid within the generic “symmetric energy state”. The (virtual) Higgs establishes a (virtual) particle “zoo” or “sea” (of Alternative Charge Carriers), and the (virtual) IVBs, because of their similar mass-energy (as conferred by the Higgs), are able to access this particle pool and take what they need to effect (real) transformations/interactions. These virtual interactions essentially connect the early with the modern-day universe, ensuring that every electron (for example) created today is identical to those created eons ago in the “Big Bang” – maintaining a necessary and universal symmetry among elementary particles (within type). The same mechanism that made the first electrons makes electrons today.

Postscript II:

The Higgs is like the main building of a government mint, a high-density domain of energetic symmetry where the precious metals are kept: copper, silver, gold (representing the three energetic families of elementary particles), along with the dies for the various elementary particles of the Higgs particle metric or “zoo” (pennies, nickles, dollars – corresponding to neutrinos, leptons, mesons), all of which are available to the IVB presses as required. A heavy IVB accesses a significant part of the Higgs domain (because of their similar masses), specifically that part in which the particle it seeks to replicate was first created. The mint supplies the IVBs with the proper raw material and the correct die for the particle it will stamp out – the same material and die that created the first particle of its type, and that will also create the last. The heavy IVB reproduces the primordial energy density of the universe when the required particle was first created (borrowing from the Higgs energy-density), and finds therein a virtual particle (the “die” from the Higgs “particle metric”) of the original type and energy to exactly reproduce the particle in question. By this means (the constant mass or energy-density of the Higgs scalar boson) the universal and necessary symmetry among elementary particles is maintained throughout the eons of the Cosmos.

1) The true function of the Higgs boson is therefore to provide an invariant source of particles of a given type and energy. This is possible because the Higgs is a scalar boson marking or “gauging” the confluence of two natural forces, the electric and weak. This convergence will be at the same energy everywhere in the universe. Furthermore, because the Higgs itself is a particle, or form of bound energy, it is impervious to the entropic expansion of the universe over time. The Higgs simply sets a universal standard to which the IVBs must rise. (The IVBs must have the correct mass-energy to fish in the Higgs particle “sea”). In turn, the IVBs supply universally invariant (single) elementary particles to reactions, transformations, and interactions they mediate. It should be reasonably obvious, from the standpoint of energy and symmetry conservation, why all elementary particles (of a given type) must be identical. Electrons produced today (for example) must be able to seamlessly swap places with those created eons ago during the “Big Bang”, or annihilate with an ancient positron (antiparticle) .

2) The true function of the IVBs is to extract single particles (the ACCs) from the Higgs energy field and provide them as needed to the reactions/interactions (the daily commerce) of the material content of the Cosmos, not only as it (quickly) cascades from the “Big Bang” to its ground state, but also as it (slowly) seeks to repay the symmetry debt engendered by its matter-only condition (“original sin”): returning, in

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obedience to Noether’s theorem, asymmetric massive, bound forms (particles) of electromagnetic energy to symmetric massless free forms (light) – the ongoing work of the stars and our life-sustaining Sun. (See: “The ‘W’ IVBs and the Weak Force Mechanism”; See: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs”; See: “The Solar Archetype”; See: “A Theory of Everything: A General Systems Perspective”.)

Postscript III:

Let’s take another look at “proton decay”. Why is it so much harder for baryons to completely decay than leptons? We find that at the electroweak energy level – energies found in the IVBs of our Sun – baryons may be transformed but not created or destroyed, whereas leptons, mesons, and neutrinos can be both transformed and created/destroyed. So far as we know, since the time of the “Big Bang”, no new baryons have ever been created, and likewise, none have ever been destroyed. The problem is one of a lack of suitable Alternative Charge Carriers; baryons carry two conserved charges that leptons lack: 1) color charge, carried by all quarks and gluons; 2) baryon number charge, the analog of lepton number (“identity”) charge, the latter carried in “implicit” form by all massive leptons and in explicit form by neutrinos. Neutrinos function as ACCs for the massive leptons with respect to lepton number or identity charge (see: “Lepton Number or Identity Charge”.) Both color and baryon number charge are strictly conserved, so both must somehow be canceled, neutralized, or otherwise balanced before a baryon may be created or destroyed.

The color charge of the baryon’s strong force, which functions to keep the three quarks of a baryon confined within the tiny region of the atomic nucleus, is carried by a field of 8 “gluons”, massless field vectors moving at velocity “c”. Each gluon is composed of a color/anticolor charge pair. (There are three color charges (“red, green, blue” – purely names of convenience with no relation at all to color in the sense of a pigment). Quarks also carry color charges, and it is the round-robin exchange of color charges between quarks (via gluons) that permanently confines quarks to the nuclear boundary (unlike photons and electric charges, all gluons and color charges attract each other). The total color field of any atomic nucleus always sums to zero color (or color neutrality – “white”), and this charge must be conserved. There is no ACC available to carry the total color charge of the baron – only an antibaryon can do it – and herein lies the major sticking point for baryon creation/destruction (or “proton decay” as the problem is generally known). (Mesons are always color- neutral, carrying color-anticolor charges of the same color, and hence cannot function as an ACC for the color charge of a 3-quark baryon.)

However, there is an “internal” solution to this color-charge conservation problem, not requiring an anti- baryon, which stems from the origin of the quarks as three-way partitions of a primitive heavy lepton (the “leptoquark”). The total color charge of a baryon must sum to zero (“white”) – both because their parent particles (the leptons) began with no color charge at all, and because (in consequence) gluons carry color/anticolor charges in all possible combinations, summing to the original zero (“white”) color charge of the parent lepton. This means that if we can compress a baryon sufficiently and symmetrically it will return to its original leptoquark state and the color charge will self-annihilate. (Note that we are once again contemplating compressing matter to some earlier, more primitive, higher energy state.) A leptoquark is a primordial, high energy lepton, the heaviest member of the leptonic spectrum (the spectrum of true elementary particles – particles with no internal components and with associated neutrino identity charges). A Leptoquark is split into three parts (quarks) by its own too-great mass and electrical self-repulsion (and the action of the “Y” IVB?). (See also: “The Origin of Matter and Information”) . There is no color charge in this (leptoquark) state because the quarks are still nascent or virtual rather than real (they have not yet separated from each other), but there is a lepton number charge, and this can be carried by a neutrino ACC, the very heavy leptoquark neutrino whose presence in the Cosmos today is registered as the mysterious “dark matter”.

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Hence proton decay is possible if we can sufficiently and symmetrically compress a baryon to its original leptoquark size, at which point a leptoquark antineutrino can cancel its baryon number charge – or it can emit its own leptoquark neutrino as an ACC, accomplishing the same charge/symmetry conservation end. (See: “Table of the Higgs Cascade”.)

As we have noted above, compressing a baryon sufficiently and symmetrically to cause its color charge to self-annihilate requires the “X” IVB which does not exist in the electroweak energy domain (nor its “mint”). We must travel to the GUT energy domain to find such a heavy IVB, a special press stamping out shiny new (electrically neutral) leptoquarks in some far-away country. These leptoquarks (analogs of heavy neutrons) achieve electrical neutrality simply because their internal quark composition allows such a configuration. It is these electrically neutral leptoquarks which go on to decay asymmetrically via the weak force “X” IVB, producing the excess of matter-only baryons which comprise our asymmetric matter-only universe. Hence we see the necessity for quarks (to form electrically-neutral leptoquarks which can live long enough to undergo weak force asymmetric decays), and the relationship between the quarks, baryons, and leptons is explained. (The necessity for three energy “families” arises because three families presents the possibility of many more (16) electrically neutral three-quark combinations.) Although obviously necessary, the asymmetric weak force decay of primordial electrically neutral leptoquarks remains a mystery, an unexplained or “given” parameter of our Cosmos, perhaps attributable only to the statistical imperative – or anthropic fiat – of an abundantly fertile Multiverse. With the excess of matter-baryons comes an equal excess of leptoquark antineutrinos, exactly balancing the baryon number of the universe, and accounting for its “dark matter” content.

Because the “X” IVB is so massive, in our present-day universe the only place proton decay can reasonably be expected to occur is in black holes – where, unfortunately, the reaction cannot be observed. In fact, insofar as proton decay is concerned, the main difference between a black hole and an “X” IVB is simply size. Perhaps, at least in a functional sense, a black hole is a gravitational example of a gigantic Higgs boson/IVB combination (a “gravity mint”). This would be just another instance of the gravitational metric of black holes overtaking all functions of the electromagnetic metric. Even photons become massive (since they cannot travel freely), the symmetry condition g = c means that time vanishes (because the clock stops), and all field vectors of the electromagnetic domain are converted into gravitational analogs. (See: “A Description of Gravity”). The “X” IVB is so prohibitively heavy that proton decay would be rare indeed were it not for black holes. Perhaps this is the “real” cosmic function of black holes – destroying baryons and converting them to light.

Heavy baryons (“hyperons”) are born in the “Big Bang” via an asymmetric weak force process; decay via ACCs to the nucleons of our ground state; join together gravitationally to form galaxies, stars, and planets, producing in the process (via the strong force) the elements of the periodic table. Baryons chemically create life via their electron shells and the electromagnetic force. Baryons die/decay in black holes, where they are crushed into light, eventually escaping as “Hawking radiation”, the final symmetry-conserving interaction required by Noether’s Theorem. “Information” is the “golden thread” running through the conservation laws governing the evolutionary unfolding of the single feature giving significance and meaning to our universe, and providing its rationale: self-conscious life.

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