• General Systems, Gravitation, and the Unified Field Theory

    "Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. In weak gravitational fields (as on planet Earth), gravity only pays the entropy "interest" on the symmetry debt of matter, converting space to time, providing an alternative entropic dimension (history) in which charge conservation (and causality) can have an extended significance. In stronger fields (as on our Sun), gravity also pays the "principal" of matter's symmetry debt, converting mass to light; this latter reaction goes to completion via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. The symmetry-conserving requirement of charge invariance (and of "Lorentz invariance" in Special Relativity) is the key to understanding the local action of the forces, including the quantization of charge and other conserved parameters. While atomic nuclei promote symmetry conservation through an exothermic nucleosynthetic pathway in stars, their associated electron shells create life through a negentropic chemical pathway on planets. Using energy and heavy elements ultimately provided by gravity, the information pathway of biology is the means whereby the universe becomes aware of and experiences itself, including evolving new modes of creativity. Carbon with its multiple 4x3 fractal resonances (5) is the crucial link between the abiotic and biotic metrics of the Cosmos.

Recent Articles

Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2

Gravity is Both a Symmetry Debt and an Entropy Debt of Light's Intrinsic Motion

The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether’s Theorem). All forces act spontaneously to return the asymmetric realm of matter to its symmetric origin in light. Tracing the origin of all charges and forces to broken symmetries of light (including gravitation) is the first step in formulating a conceptual unification among the four forces of physics.

The Particle Table

A table of elementary particles, including the weak force Intermediate Vector Bosons and Higgs particles is presented and discussed. The field vectors (force carriers) are discussed and examples of several types of particle decay are given. A list of technical terms is appended.

Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory (Part 1 of 3)

“Noether’s Theorem” states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light’s (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light’s symmetries are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity – which has a double conservation role – with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), repaying matter’s symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking’s “quantum radiance” of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.
The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. In weak gravitational fields (as on planet Earth), gravity only pays the entropy “interest” on the symmetry debt of matter, converting space to time, providing an alternative entropic dimension (history) in which charge conservation (and causality) can have an extended significance. In stronger fields (as on our Sun), gravity also pays the “principal” of matter’s symmetry debt, converting mass to light; this latter reaction goes to completion via Hawking’s “quantum radiance” of black holes.
The symmetry-conserving requirement of charge invariance (and of “Lorentz invariance” in Special Relativity) is the key to understanding the local action of the forces, including the quantization of charge and other conserved parameters.
While atomic nuclei promote symmetry conservation through an exothermic nucleosynthetic pathway in stars, their associated electron shells create life through a negentropic chemical pathway on planets. Using energy and heavy elements ultimately provided by gravity, the information pathway of biology is the means whereby the universe becomes aware of and experiences itself, including evolving new modes of creativity. Carbon with its multiple 4×3 fractal resonances (5) is the crucial link between the abiotic and biotic metrics of the Cosmos.

An Introduction to the Papers (Unified Field Theory)

Because the papers themselves can be difficult for the uninitiated, in spite of my efforts to make them simple and clear, I have written a series of introductory papers designed as a guide to assist the interested reader in working through them. I will try to bring out the main points of the paper, its relation to the remaining body of work, and perhaps make a few comments on its history and structure. There is almost no mathematics in these papers; for the most part, the papers deal only with conservation principles, although of course I make reference to the mathematical theories which provide the formal basis for the conceptual synthesis of this work (Noether’s theorem, Einstein’s “Interval” and energy relations, the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics, etc.).

Proton Decay and the “Heat Death” of the Cosmos

The significance of proton decay is that it is the end-point of time and temporal entropy for matter, in much the same way we might say the black hole is the end-point of space and spatial entropy for light. Again we find that “the extremes meet”: proton decay is surely commonplace inside black holes, while Hawking’s “quantum radiance” returns bound energy to free energy and temporal entropy to spatial entropy.
The notion that the ratio of force strengths relates the “heat death” and the “information death” of the Cosmos via proton decay suggests that if we knew one we would know the other; unfortunately, we know neither, and our force ratio is a pure number, without units. Nevertheless, I will use it to make a naive guess at the proton’s lifetime. The lower experimental bound on proton decay is currently 10(35) years. According to the hypothesis advanced here, that the proton lifetime reflects the force ratio, in 2.5 x 10(41) seconds all protons will have decayed, which, curiously enough, yields an observational expectation (8 x 10(33) years) not far off the current lower experimental bound.

Proton Decay and the “Heat Death” of the Cosmos

The significance of proton decay is that it is the end-point of time and temporal entropy for matter, in much the same way we might say the black hole is the end-point of space and spatial entropy for light. Again we find that “the extremes meet”: proton decay is surely commonplace inside black holes, while Hawking’s “quantum radiance” returns bound energy to free energy and temporal entropy to spatial entropy.
The notion that the ratio of force strengths relates the “heat death” and the “information death” of the Cosmos via proton decay suggests that if we knew one we would know the other; unfortunately, we know neither, and our force ratio is a pure number, without units. Nevertheless, I will use it to make a naive guess at the proton’s lifetime. The lower experimental bound on proton decay is currently 10(35) years. According to the hypothesis advanced here, that the proton lifetime reflects the force ratio, in 2.5 x 10(41) seconds all protons will have decayed, which, curiously enough, yields an observational expectation (8 x 10(33) years) not far off the current lower experimental bound.

The Origin of Matter and Information

The creation of matter during the “Big Bang” is apparently due to the asymmetric decay of electrically neutral leptoquarks and antileptoquarks, in which the antileptoquarks decay at a slightly faster rate than the leptoquarks. The leptoquarks in these decays (which are electrically neutral due to the fractionally charged quarks) are also colorless (in the limit of “asymptotic freedom”), due to the great compressive force exerted by the “X” IVB. A leptoquark antineutrino is produced in this decay, balancing the baryon “number” charge of the eventual proton. This neutrino is a “dark matter” candidate. The interaction is the initiating example of a general class of reactions between symmetric primary energy fields and asymmetric secondary or “alternative” information fields or charge carriers.

Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers

Not only does the weak force create isolated particles of matter during the Big Bang (by virtue of its asymmetric reactions with matter vs antimatter), the weak force also creates and transforms isolated particles of matter (and sometimes antimatter) at later times, including today (radioactive decay, astrophysical processes, etc.) The weak force provides a “lawful” pathway of decay (“lawful” in that the decay pathway, driven by entropy, obeys the conservation laws) from the high energy, high mass particles created during the earliest moments of the “Big Bang”, to the low energy, low mass particles of “ground state” atomic matter. The mechanism of particle creation, transformation, and decay involves both the massive Higgs boson and the weak force field vectors, or “Intermediate Vector Bosons” (IVBs) (so-called because in contrast to most massless bosons, IVBs are very massive). The decay cascade is driven by entropy, regulated by the weak force, with a “rebound” driven by symmetry conservation and gravitation.

Higgs Table: Unified Force Eras of the “Big Bang”

We explore the hypothesis that there are 3 families or energy levels of the Higgs bosons and their associated Intermediate Vector bosons (IVBs), analogously to the three families or energy levels of the quarks and leptons. The Universe apparently devolves (rapidly) in an asymmetric “Higgs Cascade” to the electromagnetic ground state, and evolves (slowly) upward again in a “rebound” driven by symmetry conservation (Noether’s Theorem) toward its original state of pure electromagnetic radiation (light).

The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Parts II -IV

A General Systems Perspective

The IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) are the field vectors (force carriers) of the weak force. The IVBs reconstitute the very dense, early metric of spacetime (during the “Big Bang”), and their mass is the probable consequence of the binding energy necessary to condense, compact, and/or convolute the spacetime metric. Originally, the “W” IVBs were indistinguishable from the early dense metric of which they were a part – the energy level of electroweak unification. The “Electroweak Era” existed from 10(-12) to 10(-35) seconds after the Big Bang, when collision energy exceeded 100 GEV and the temperature exceeded 10(15) Kelvins. During this time (a tiny fraction of a second in human terms) the whole of spacetime – the whole Cosmos – was in effect a single huge “W” IVB within which all the transitions of “identity” within the lepton family of particles (including the heavy leptons), and all the transitions of “flavor” within the quark family of particles (including quarks of the heavy baryons or “hyperons”), could take place freely without restriction or energy barriers (quark and lepton families were unified among themselves, but quarks remained separate from leptons.) (See: Brian Greene: “The Fabric of the Cosmos”, page 270, Knopf, 2004.)

  1. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part 2
  2. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part I
  3. The Conversion of Space to Time by Gravity
  4. The “Tetrahedron Model” vs the “Standard Model” of Physics: A Comparison
  5. Postscript to: Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the Cosmic Tetrahedron Model
  6. Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the “Tetrahedron Model”
  7. A General Systems Approach to the Unified Field Theory – Part 4 (General Systems Discussion)
  8. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 3 of 3
  9. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory (a “Theory of Everything”) – Part 2
  10. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2 of 3
  11. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2
  12. The Particle Table
  13. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory (Part 1 of 3)
  14. An Introduction to the Papers (Unified Field Theory)
  15. Proton Decay and the “Heat Death” of the Cosmos
  16. Proton Decay and the “Heat Death” of the Cosmos
  17. The Origin of Matter and Information
  18. Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers
  19. Higgs Table: Unified Force Eras of the “Big Bang”
  20. The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Parts II -IV
  21. The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric
  22. The Weak Force: Identity or Number Charge
  23. Introduction to The Weak Force
  24. A Description of Gravitation
  25. Introduction to Gravitation
  26. Introduction to The Weak Force
  27. The Weak Force: Identity or Number Charge
  28. A Spacetime map of the Universe: Implications for Cosmology
  29. Negentropic Information
  30. Synopsis of the ‘Tetrahedron Model’
  31. Time and Entropy
  32. Noether`s Theorem and Einstein’s “Interval”
  33. The Intrinsic Motions of Matter
  34. Light and Matter – a Synopsis
  35. A Short Course in the Unified Field Theory
  36. The Information Pathway
  37. Sect. VI: Introduction to Information
  38. Introduction to Fractals
  39. Introduction to General Systems, Complex Systems
  40. A Rationale for Gravitation
  41. About Gravity
  42. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part 2
  43. A Description of Gravitation
  44. Spatial vs Temporal Entropy
  45. Introduction to Entropy
  46. The Human Connection
  47. Global-Local Gauge Symmetries and the “Tetrahedron Model” Part I: Postscript
  48. Global and Local Gauge Symmetry in the “Tetrahedron Model”: Part I
  49. Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part IV
  50. Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part V
  51. Global-Local Gauge Symmetry: Part III: The Weak Force
  52. Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part II (Gravitation, Section A)
  53. Global and Local Gauge Symmetry: Part II (Gravitation, Section B)
  54. The Origin of Matter and Information
  55. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part I
  56. The Conversion of Space to Time
  57. The Short-Range or “Particle” Forces
  58. The Time Train
  59. Extending Einstein’s Equivalence Principle: Symmetry Conservation
  60. Introduction to Gravitation
  61. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part I
  62. The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric
  63. de Broglie Matter Waves and the Evolution of Consciousness
  64. Nature’s Fractal Pathway
  65. Teilhard de Chardin – Prophet of the Information Age
  66. The Double Conservation Role of Gravity
  67. The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Parts II -IV
  68. Higgs Table: Unified Force Eras of the “Big Bang”
  69. The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs
  70. Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers
  71. The Strong Force: Two Expressions
  72. Table of Forces and Energy States
  73. The Origin of Space and Time
  74. “Inflation” and the “Big Crunch”
  75. The “W” Intermediate Vector Boson and the Weak Force Mechanism
  76. The Weak Force Mechanism and the “W” IVB (Intermediate Vector Boson):
  77. Physical Elements of the “Spacetime Map”
  78. The Traveling Twins Paradox
  79. Currents of Entropy and Symmetry
  80. The Half-Life of Proton Decay
  81. Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the “Tetrahedron Model”
  82. An Introduction to the Papers (Unified Field Theory)
  83. The “Spacetime Map” as a Model of Juan Maldacena’s 5-Dimensional Holographic Universe
  84. The “Tetrahedron Model” in the Context of a Complete Conservation Cycle
  85. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 3 (Summary)
  86. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2
  87. General Systems “Hourglass” or “Grail” Diagrams
  88. PARTICLE TABLE
  89. The “Tetrahedron Model” vs the “Standard Model” of Physics: A Comparison
  90. “Dark Energy”: Does Light Create a Gravitational Field?
  91. Human Life-Span Development and General Systems Models
  92. Man’s Role in Nature
  93. Origin of Life: Newton, Darwin, and the Abundance of Life in the Universe