Table of Forces and Energy States

Physical Organization of Nature in a General Systems Format



A 4×4 table of the four forces of physics in four states of energy is presented as a simplified General Systems solution to the fundamental physical organization of Nature.

Table of Forces (Columns) and Energy States (Rows) (Simple Table #1)
4 Forces of Physics —> Electromagnetism Gravitation Strong Weak
Below: Comments on the 
Energy State Rows:
Free Energy, Light:
radiation; space;
symmetric energy;
virtual particles;
(reprising the
“Big Bang”);
(incurring the debt);
Spatial Energy Forms;
(row 1)


Light: E = hv (Planck);
Intrinsic Motion “c”;
All Charges = 0;
Free Energy
(“c” gauges Light’s
entropy drive
and “non-local” 
Non-local, Acausal,
Atemporal Energy
Created by Light’s
Entropy Drive;
Domain of Light;
Light’s “Interval” = 0;
The Spatial Metric;
Gravitational Negative
Energy and Entropy;
Total Energy = 0
Composite and
Particles; “Ylem”;
Fractured Leptons;
Quarks; Gluons;
Antiparticle pairs;
Neutral Particles;
Particle Symmetry
Total Charge = 0
Elementary Particles;
Neutrinos; Leptons;
Antiparticle Pairs;
Higgs (Mass Gauge);
Vector Bosons; 
“Higgs Cascade”;
Real Particles
Bound Energy:
matter; history;
asymmetric energy;
massive real particles
(consequences of row 1
raw energy
(down payment),
“pay now”;
Temporal Energy Forms;
(row 2)
E = mcc; hv = mcc;
Matter, Momentum;
Bound Energy
Charges > 0;
Local, Causal,
Temporal Energy;
“Lorentz Invariance”
Special Relativity
Gravitational Creation
of Time from Space;
Historic Spacetime;
Domain of Information;
Mass Interval > 0;
Metric Asymmetry;
(“intrinsic motion T” is 
bound energy’s
entropy drive);
Relative Motion;
General Relativity
Mass Carriers;
Atomic Nucleus;
Whole Quantum
Charge Units
Charge Carriers;
Electron Shell;
Higgs and IVBs
Mass Scale;
symmetry debts
(carried by particles
of row 2);
symmetry (charge)
(mortgage, credit),
“pay later”;
Symmetry Carriers;
(row 3)
Electric Charge: 
(4 – dimensional
asymmetry = time)
(vs 3-dimensional
spatial symmetry);
Quantum Mechanics;
Charge Invariance
Gravitational Charge:
“Location” Charge;
“Location” Asymmetry
of Bound Energy;
Warped Metric; 
Domain of Free and
Bound Energy; 
(“G” is the entropy 
conversion gauge)
Fractional Charges:
Color Charge
(quantum –
fractional charge
Quark Confinement;
Flavor Charge
(least bound energy,
nucleon “isospin”);
“Yukawa Binding”
“Number” or
“Identity” Charge: 
(neutrinos are “bare”
identity charges);
asymmetry –
Force Carriers,
Field Vectors, Bosons:
(produced by charges
of row 3)
(symmetry restoration
via the conversion
of bound to free energy);
(retiring the debt);
Symmetry Conservation/
Restoration Cycles;
(row 4)
Chemical Reactions;
Annihilation Reactions
(“Big Bang” and
Suppression of
Virtual Paticles)
Stars, Quasars;
Black Holes;
“Quantum Radiance”;
of Mass to Light
Gluons, Mesons:
Proton Decay
Vector Bosons 
(IVBs: W, Z, X);
Particle and 
Proton Decay
John A. Gowan and August T. Jaccaci Dec., 2010

This table may be read like an English paragraph. Row one recapitulates the the creation of matter in the “Big Bang”. The universe begins with light, free electromagnetic energy – a perfectly symmetric form of energy. The role of gravity at this stage is to provide sufficient negative energy to counterbalance the positive energy of the “Creation Event”, such that the cosmos is born from a state of zero net energy and charge. The intrinsic motion of light (which is the entropy drive of light) creates space, the expanding and cooling entropy/conservation domain of free energy. The interaction of high-energy light with the metric structure of spacetime creates virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of primordial leptoquarks (leptoquarks are primordial leptons broken into three subunits, the quarks). (See: “The Particle Table”.) Symmetry is maintained so long as there are equal numbers of particles vs antiparticles. Row one ends with symmetry-breaking of the primordial leptoquark pairs and the production of single (matter) baryons and leptons by the action of the Higgs boson and the weak force Intermediate Vector Bosons (IVBs). (See: “Table of the Higgs Cascade”.) (Although leptoquark particle-antiparticle pairs are produced in equal numbers, electrically neutral antimatter leptoquarks apparently decay at a slightly faster rate than their matter counterparts.) The sub-elementary quarks carry fractional charges necessary to the production of electrically neutral leptoquarks, allowing the neutrals to live long enough to undergo asymmetric weak force decays. These decays should also produce leptoquark neutrinos, which are “dark matter” candidates. (See: “The Origin of Matter and Information”.)

In row two we find the massive matter products of row-one symmetry-breaking. Row two conserves the raw energy of row one. Atomic matter is an alternative, asymmetric, local, temporal, causal, bound form of electromagnetic energy. Mass is the conserved form of light’s raw energy; time is the conserved form of light’s entropy drive (intrinsic motion); charge is the conserved form of light’s symmetry. “Velocity c” gauges the invariance of the “Interval” and causality, including “Lorentz Invariance”, the covariance of space and time in Einstein’s Special Relativity. Gravity creates time by the annihilation of space and the extraction of a metrically equivalent temporal residue (General Relativity); the intrinsic motion of time goes on to produce historic spacetime. (See: “The Conversion of Space to Time”.) Time is a necessary dimensional parameter for massive objects because of their relative motion and causal relations. (See: “Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics”.) Atoms are composed of two classes of particles, the mass-carrying quarks and the charge-carrying leptons. Gluons are necessary to confine the fractionally charged quarks to whole quantum unit charge combinations. (See: “The Strong Force: Two Expressions”.) Leptons are necessary as alternative charge carriers for the massive quarks, balancing their charges in place of antiparticles, thus avoiding annihilation reactions. Electrons are alternative carriers of electric charge, neutrinos are alternative carriers of the weak force “identity” charge. The elaborate weak force Higgs and IVB mechanism is necessary to reproduce single, invariant elementary particles anytime, anywhere. Elementary particles created today must be the same in every respect as those creatd eons ago during the “Big Bang”. It is the creation of single invariant elementary particles that is the difficulty posed to and overcome by the massive mechanism of the weak force. (See: “The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force Mechanism”.) (See also: “Identity Charge and the Weak Force”.)

Row three exhibits the charges carried by the massive matter particles produced by symmetry-breaking in row one. Row three conserves the symmetry of row one. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light. Noether’s Theorem states that the symmetry of light must be conserved, no less than the raw energy of light. Charge conservation = symmetry conservation. Charge conservation allows the symmetry of light to be carried into the time dimension where it can be stored in an alternative form (charge) and repaid at any future time through annihilation with an appropriate anticharge – thus returning the material system to the symmetric state of light which originally created it. Gravity pays the entropy-“interest” on the symmetry debt of matter by creating a time dimension (via the annihilation of space) in which matter’s charges can be stored and eventually repaid. (Gravity pays the energy-“principle” on matter’s symmetry debt in row 4.) The spatial expansion of the cosmos is reduced as gravity annihilates space and converts the spatial entropy drive of light into the historical entropy drive of matter.

Each of the four forces of physics is produced by a charge which can be traced to a broken symmetry – a “symmetry debt” of light. This is the conceptual unification of the forces: they all represent symmetry debts of light (including gravity, which is both a symmetry and an entropy debt of light). (See: “The Double Conservation Role of Gravity”.) Electric charge is due to light’s broken dimensional symmetry (2- and 3-dimensional symmetric space vs 4-dimensional asymmetric spacetime); gravity is due to light’s broken spatial distribution symmetry (light’s broken “non-local” symmetric energy state), plus light’s broken symmetric entropy drive (light’s intrinsic motion), both gauged by “velocity c”, and both broken by the local, immobile, undistributed mass-energy of matter. The strong force color charge is due to the fractional charges of the quarks, which threaten the quantum currency (whole quantum charge units) of the symmetry debts themselves. The weak force is due to light’s broken “anonymity”: all photons are alike, but elementary particles are not and therefore have an “identity” charge (AKA “number” charge) (neutrinos are “bare” identity charges). Magnetism is a “local gauge symmetry” expression of the electromagnetic force which protects the invariance of electric charge in relative motion. Analogs of magnetism’s local gauge function in the other forces include the covariance of time and space (“Lorentz Invariance”) protecting causality, velocity c, and the “Interval” (gravity); quark confinement by gluons, protecting unitary quantum charges (strong force); and the massive weak force IVBs, protecting elementary particle invariance. (See: “The Tetrahedron Model of the Unified Field Theory”.) (See also: “Local vs Global Gauge Symmetry in the Tetrahedron Model”.)

In the 4th row we list the payment modes of light’s symmetry debts by the 4 forces – forces are the demand for payment of the symmetry debts held by the charges of matter. Row four repays all the symmetry, energy, and entropy debts incurred by symmetry-breaking in row one. Payments include partial as well as complete payments. In the electrical force we have exothermic chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; in the gravitational force we find numerous astrophysical forces converting bound to free energy, culminating in Hawking’s “quantum radiance” of black holes. As high-energy gravity repays its symmetry debt (converting mass to light), gravity reverses the effect of its own low-energy reaction, which paid matter’s entropy debt (by the conversion of space to time). This reversal reduces the total cosmic gravitational field (due to mass reduction), allowing the spatial expansion to recover a portion of its original acceleration (observed recently as the “acceleration” of the cosmos due to “dark energy”). Gravity pays the energy-“principle” of light’s symmetry debt through the conversion of bound to free energy, as in the stars. The vanishing of gravity as mass is converted to light is the vital clue regarding gravity’s symmetry-conserving role in the natural economy of today’s universe – the force vanishes only when its conservation role is accomplished. In the strong force we have fusion and the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and ultimately proton decay; and in the weak force we find fission, radioactivity, contributions to the nucleosynthetic pathway, and particle and proton decay. Presumably “dark matter” also participates in some type of symmetry conservation cycle. “Dark matter” may consist of leptoquark antineutrinos. For more details, see: “Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory”.

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(simple version of table above)

  1. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part 2
  2. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part I
  3. The Conversion of Space to Time by Gravity
  4. The “Tetrahedron Model” vs the “Standard Model” of Physics: A Comparison
  5. Postscript to: Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the Cosmic Tetrahedron Model
  6. Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the “Tetrahedron Model”
  7. A General Systems Approach to the Unified Field Theory – Part 4 (General Systems Discussion)
  8. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 3 of 3
  9. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory (a “Theory of Everything”) – Part 2
  10. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2 of 3
  11. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2
  12. The Particle Table
  13. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory (Part 1 of 3)
  14. An Introduction to the Papers (Unified Field Theory)
  15. Proton Decay and the “Heat Death” of the Cosmos
  16. Proton Decay and the “Heat Death” of the Cosmos
  17. The Origin of Matter and Information
  18. Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers
  19. Higgs Table: Unified Force Eras of the “Big Bang”
  20. The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Parts II -IV
  21. The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric
  22. The Weak Force: Identity or Number Charge
  23. Introduction to The Weak Force
  24. A Description of Gravitation
  25. Introduction to Gravitation
  26. Introduction to The Weak Force
  27. The Weak Force: Identity or Number Charge
  28. A Spacetime map of the Universe: Implications for Cosmology
  29. Negentropic Information
  30. Synopsis of the ‘Tetrahedron Model’
  31. Time and Entropy
  32. Noether`s Theorem and Einstein’s “Interval”
  33. The Intrinsic Motions of Matter
  34. Light and Matter – a Synopsis
  35. A Short Course in the Unified Field Theory
  36. The Information Pathway
  37. Sect. VI: Introduction to Information
  38. Introduction to Fractals
  39. Introduction to General Systems, Complex Systems
  40. A Rationale for Gravitation
  41. About Gravity
  42. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part 2
  43. A Description of Gravitation
  44. Spatial vs Temporal Entropy
  45. Introduction to Entropy
  46. The Human Connection
  47. Global-Local Gauge Symmetries and the “Tetrahedron Model” Part I: Postscript
  48. Global and Local Gauge Symmetry in the “Tetrahedron Model”: Part I
  49. Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part IV
  50. Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part V
  51. Global-Local Gauge Symmetry: Part III: The Weak Force
  52. Global and Local Gauge Symmetries: Part II (Gravitation, Section A)
  53. Global and Local Gauge Symmetry: Part II (Gravitation, Section B)
  54. The Origin of Matter and Information
  55. Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics: Part I
  56. The Conversion of Space to Time
  57. The Short-Range or “Particle” Forces
  58. The Time Train
  59. Extending Einstein’s Equivalence Principle: Symmetry Conservation
  60. Introduction to Gravitation
  61. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part I
  62. The Higgs Boson vs the Spacetime Metric
  63. de Broglie Matter Waves and the Evolution of Consciousness
  64. Nature’s Fractal Pathway
  65. Teilhard de Chardin – Prophet of the Information Age
  66. The Double Conservation Role of Gravity
  67. The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Parts II -IV
  68. Higgs Table: Unified Force Eras of the “Big Bang”
  69. The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs
  70. Introduction to the Higgs Boson Papers
  71. The Strong Force: Two Expressions
  72. Table of Forces and Energy States
  73. The Origin of Space and Time
  74. “Inflation” and the “Big Crunch”
  75. The “W” Intermediate Vector Boson and the Weak Force Mechanism
  76. The Weak Force Mechanism and the “W” IVB (Intermediate Vector Boson):
  77. Physical Elements of the “Spacetime Map”
  78. The Traveling Twins Paradox
  79. Currents of Entropy and Symmetry
  80. The Half-Life of Proton Decay
  81. Spiritual and Scientific Principles of the “Tetrahedron Model”
  82. An Introduction to the Papers (Unified Field Theory)
  83. The “Spacetime Map” as a Model of Juan Maldacena’s 5-Dimensional Holographic Universe
  84. The “Tetrahedron Model” in the Context of a Complete Conservation Cycle
  85. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 3 (Summary)
  86. Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2
  87. General Systems “Hourglass” or “Grail” Diagrams
  89. The “Tetrahedron Model” vs the “Standard Model” of Physics: A Comparison
  90. “Dark Energy”: Does Light Create a Gravitational Field?
  91. Human Life-Span Development and General Systems Models
  92. Man’s Role in Nature
  93. Origin of Life: Newton, Darwin, and the Abundance of Life in the Universe